Nanoscience is the study of properties and characteristics that are unique to the nanoscale and pharmaceutical nanoscience is the application of the ensuing knowledge to the development of pharmaceuticals. Materials properties residing at the nanoscale have been found to offer a number of pharmaceutical products advanced functionality. Nanoparticles are fabricated from various chemistries, e.g. polymer-drug conjugates, self-assembled polymers, self-assembled low molecular weight amphiphiles, silica, crystalline iron salts, hydrophobic polymer nanoprecipitates and drug nanocrystals. Principally, with nano-enabled entities, there is unprecedented control of the in vivo fate of the drug compound and the science has subsequently already led to a number of approved products, e.g. Doxil, Ambisome and Abraxane with others in clinical development. As well as being able to control the biodistribution of drug compounds, emerging applications of pharmaceutical nanoscience include the use of nanofabricated materials for regenerative medicine and their application in diagnostic imaging.
KeywordsPolymeric Micelle Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrophobic Polymer Pharmaceutical Innovation Drug Nanocrystals
- Gratton SE, Ropp PA, Pohlhaus PD, Luft JC, Madden VJ, Napier ME, DeSimone JM (2008) The effect of particle design on cellular internalization pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:11613–11618Google Scholar
- Hrkach J, Von Hoff D, Ali MM, Andrianova E, Auer J, Campbell T, De Witt D, Figa M, Figueiredo M, Horhota A, Low S, McDonnell K, Peeke E, Retnarajan B, Sabnis A, Schnipper E, Song JJ, Song YH, Summa J, Tompsett D, Troiano G, Hoven TV, Wright J, LoRusso P, Kantoff PW, Bander NH, Sweeney C, Farokhzad OC, Langer R, Zale S (2012) Preclinical development and clinical translation of a PSMA-targeted docetaxel nanoparticle with a differentiated pharmacological profile. Sci Transl Med 4:128ra39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mayes E, Douek M, Pankhurst QA (2012) Surgical magnetic systems and tracers for cancer staging. In: Thanh NTK (ed) Magnetic nanoparticles: from fabrication to clinical applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 129, 541–556Google Scholar
- Walsh TJ, Yeldandi V, McEvoy M, Gonzalez C, Chanock S, Freifeld A, Seibel NI, Whitcomb PO, Jarosinski P, Boswell G, Bekersky I, Alak A, Buell D, Barret J, Wilson W (1998) Safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of a small unilamellar liposomal formulation of amphotericin B (AmBisome) in neutropenic patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:2391–2398PubMedGoogle Scholar