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History of Mathematics Teacher Education

Abstract

This chapter attempts to trace the development of mathematics teacher education over the last two centuries. The discussion focuses primarily on Europe and North America. An understanding that the government must take part in preparing teachers for secondary education, and an appreciation of what such preparation must consist of, did not emerge all at once and everywhere in the same manner. Gradually, examinations for teachers came to play an important role, as did special forms of professional preparation. Approaches to the subject-oriented and professional sides of teacher preparation changed over time, occurring differently in different countries. The challenges and issues in mathematics teacher education discussed in this chapter in many cases remain pressing and influential to this day.

Keywords

  • Teacher Education
  • Secondary Education
  • Mathematics Teacher
  • Prospective Teacher
  • Teacher Training

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    In the course of the nineteenth century, besides the gymnasia, also Realschule and Realgymnasia (a mixed form) came into existence. Teacher education for these schools was the same as for the gymnasia, based on the ideal of pure mathematics. At the end of the nineteenth century, this emphasis on pure mathematics would cause problems at the technical schools and was one of the reasons for Felix Kleins proposals for reform.

  2. 2.

    Another example is the paper that Karl Weierstrass wrote in 1840 for his final exam at the seminar in Münster: About the Socratic dialogue and its applicability in school teaching.

  3. 3.

    The so-called École Normale de l’an III (1795) existed only for a few months.

  4. 4.

    In the Ecoles Centrales, the teachers were still free to choose the textbook, but the great majority used the same book, that of E. Bezout. In the Lycées and Collèges, the textbooks of Lacroix were dominating.

  5. 5.

    At the University of Groningen, the students instead visited primary schools in the countryside where they attended lessons, but sometimes they caused scandals by ridiculing the schoolmaster. Letter from the board of governors to the minister of the interior, 1838, State Archives, The Hague.

  6. 6.

    Raymond Clare Archibald published already in 1918 an extensive study on the education of teachers of mathematics in the countries represented in the CIEM, based on material then already available. His study covers partly other countries than the 1932 report and gives also detailed information on secondary and higher education

  7. 7.

    Institutes for higher education such as the École Normale Superieure or the École Polytechnique. These institutions were more prestigious than the universities.

  8. 8.

    These rules contained some more refinements, which are omitted here.

  9. 9.

    For Norway, see L’enseignement mathématique, 32, 360–364, 1933; for Denmark, L’enseignement mathématique, 32, 202–204, 1933; for Sweden, R.C. Archibald, The training of teachers of mathematics for the secondary schools of the countries represented in the international commission on the teaching of mathematics. Washington 1918

    .

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Smid, H.J. (2014). History of Mathematics Teacher Education. In: Karp, A., Schubring, G. (eds) Handbook on the History of Mathematics Education. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9155-2_29

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