Baked Products: Batters and DoughOpen image in new window
This baked products chapter builds on knowledge of the functional properties of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins discussed in previous chapters. Specific batter and dough ingredients that are discussed in this chapter include previously studied commodities, such as flour, eggs, milk, fats and oils, and sweeteners. Among other important points, this chapter will view the functions of various ingredients in a general manner and the role of those ingredients in specific baked products.
KeywordsWheat Flour Bake Product Cake Batter Sponge Cake Soft Wheat Flour
The flour created by a blend of hard and soft wheat milling streams.
Thin flour mixtures that are beaten or stirred, with a 1:1 or 1:2 ratio of liquid to flour, for pour batters and drop batters, respectively.
Thick flour mixtures that are kneaded, with a 1:3 or 1:6–8 ratio of liquid to flour for soft and stiff dough, respectively.
Flexible, stretchable gluten structure of dough.
A biological process where yeast or bacteria, as well as mold and enzymes, metabolize complex organic substances such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, or maltose into relatively simple substances; the anaerobic conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast or bacteria.
Thin, flat layers of dough formed in some dough such as biscuits or piecrusts; a property of some pastries that is inverse to tenderness.
Three-dimensional viscoelastic structure of dough, formed as gliadin and glutenin in some flour are hydrated and manipulated.
Presence of the proteins gliadin and glutenin that may potentially form the elastic gluten structure.
The hydration and manipulation of flour that has gluten potential.
The cell size, orientation, and overall structure formed by a pattern or structure of gelatinized starch and coagulated protein of flour particles appearing among air cells in batters and dough.
To mix dough into a uniform mass by folding, pressing, and stretching.
To raise, make light and porous by fermentation or nonfermentation methods.
The initial rise of batters and doughs subject to oven heat.
A center tunnel where gases escape from a muffin.
Solid fat able to be molded to shape, but does not pour.
The second rise of shaped yeast dough.
Having a delicate, crumbly texture, a property of some pastries that is inverse to flakiness.
Elongated air pathway formed along gluten strands in batters and doughs, especially seen in over manipulated muffins.
Flour derived from the endosperm of milled wheat.
Flour derived from the whole kernel of wheat—contains bran, endosperm, and germ of wheat.