Baked Products: Batters and DoughOpen image in new window

  • Vickie A. Vaclavik
  • Elizabeth W. Christian
Part of the Food Science Text Series book series (FSTS)


This baked products chapter builds on knowledge of the functional properties of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins discussed in previous chapters. Specific batter and dough ingredients that are discussed in this chapter include previously studied commodities, such as flour, eggs, milk, fats and oils, and sweeteners. Among other important points, this chapter will view the functions of various ingredients in a general manner and the role of those ingredients in specific baked products.


Wheat Flour Bake Product Cake Batter Sponge Cake Soft Wheat Flour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



All-purpose flour

The flour created by a blend of hard and soft wheat milling streams.


Thin flour mixtures that are beaten or stirred, with a 1:1 or 1:2 ratio of liquid to flour, for pour batters and drop batters, respectively.


Thick flour mixtures that are kneaded, with a 1:3 or 1:6–8 ratio of liquid to flour for soft and stiff dough, respectively.


Flexible, stretchable gluten structure of dough.


A biological process where yeast or bacteria, as well as mold and enzymes, metabolize complex organic substances such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, or maltose into relatively simple substances; the anaerobic conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast or bacteria.


Thin, flat layers of dough formed in some dough such as biscuits or piecrusts; a property of some pastries that is inverse to tenderness.


Three-dimensional viscoelastic structure of dough, formed as gliadin and glutenin in some flour are hydrated and manipulated.

Gluten-forming potential

Presence of the proteins gliadin and glutenin that may potentially form the elastic gluten structure.

Gluten development

The hydration and manipulation of flour that has gluten potential.


The cell size, orientation, and overall structure formed by a pattern or structure of gelatinized starch and coagulated protein of flour particles appearing among air cells in batters and dough.


To mix dough into a uniform mass by folding, pressing, and stretching.


To raise, make light and porous by fermentation or nonfermentation methods.

Oven spring

The initial rise of batters and doughs subject to oven heat.


A center tunnel where gases escape from a muffin.

Plastic fat

Solid fat able to be molded to shape, but does not pour.


The second rise of shaped yeast dough.


Having a delicate, crumbly texture, a property of some pastries that is inverse to flakiness.


Elongated air pathway formed along gluten strands in batters and doughs, especially seen in over manipulated muffins.

Wheat flour

Flour derived from the endosperm of milled wheat.

Whole wheat flour

Flour derived from the whole kernel of wheat—contains bran, endosperm, and germ of wheat.


  1. Thompson T (2000) Questionable foods and the gluten-free diet: survey of current recommendations. J Am Diet Assoc 100:463–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Thompson T (2001) Wheat starch, gliadin, and the gluten-free diet. J Am Diet Assoc 101:1456–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vickie A. Vaclavik
    • 1
  • Elizabeth W. Christian
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition & Food ScienceTexas Women’s UniversityDentonUSA

Personalised recommendations