Milk and Milk ProductsOpen image in new window
Milk is the first food of young mammals produced by the mammary glands of female mammals. It is a mixture of fat and high-quality protein in water and contains some carbohydrate (lactose), vitamins, and minerals. Milk and milk products may be obtained from different species, such as goats and sheep, although the focus of this chapter is on cow’s milk and milk products.
KeywordsMilk Product Whey Protein Casein Micelle Lactose Intolerance Cottage Cheese
Pasteurized low-fat or nonfat milk to which bacteria are added to ferment lactose to the more acidic lactic acid that clots the casein in milk.
Primary protein of milk, colloidally dispersed.
Stable spherical particles in milk containing αs-, β-, and κ-casein, and also colloidal calcium phosphate. The micelles are stabilized by κ-casein, which exists mainly at the surface; the αs- and β-casein fractions are located mainly in the interior of the micelles.
Coagulated product formed from the coagulation of casein by lactic acid or rennin; may be unripened or bacteria ripened; made from concentrated milk.
Agitation breaks fat globule membranes so the emulsion breaks, fat coalesces, and water escapes.
The formation of new cross-links subsequent to the denaturation of a protein. This forms a clot, gel, or semisolid material as macromolecules of protein aggregate.
Fat globules coalesce (less dense than the aqueous phase of milk) and rise to the surface of unhomogenized, whole, and some low-fat milk.
Concentrated to remove 60 % of the water of ordinary fluid milk; canned.
(Cultured) enzymes from microorganisms or acid that reduce the pH and clot milk by breaking down the organic substrates to smaller molecules.
Increasing the vitamin content of fresh milk to contain vitamins A and D to levels not ordinarily found in milk.
Dispersion of an increased number and smaller fat globules to prevent creaming.
Resembles (looks, tastes like) the traditional product but is nutritionally inferior—contains no butterfat or milk products.
Inability to digest lactose due to the absence or insufficient level of intestinal lactase enzyme.
The first step of browning that occurs due to a reaction between the free amino group of an amino acid and a reducing sugar; nonenzymatic browning.
All of the components of milk solids except fat.
Resembles (looks, tastes like) traditional product and is nutritionally equal; contains no butterfat (e.g., filled milk).
The increase in volume of ice cream over the volume of ice cream mix due to the incorporation of air.
Heat treatment to destroy pathogenic bacteria, fungi (mold and yeast), and most nonpathogenic bacteria.
Enzyme from the stomach of milk-fed calves used to clot milk and form many cheeses.
The time between curd precipitation and completion of texture, flavor, and color development in cheese. Lactose is fermented, fat is hydrolyzed, and protein goes through some hydrolysis to amino acids.
Temperature higher than that required for pasteurization, which leaves the product free from all bacteria.
Concentrated to remove 60 % of the water, contains 40–45 % sugar.
All of the components of milk except for water.
Secondary protein of milk, contained in serum or aqueous solution; contains lactalbumins and lactoglobulins.
- A new way to separate whey proteins. Food Eng 2000a; 72(December):13Google Scholar
- Davis CG, Blayney DP, Dong D, Stefanova S, Johnson A (2010) Long-term growth in U.S. cheese consumption may slow. United States Department of Agriculture. A report from the Economic Research ServiceGoogle Scholar
- Decker KJ (2012) Culture splash: fermented dairy beverages. Food Prod Des November:44–53Google Scholar
- Hollingsworth P (2001) Food technology special report. Yogurt reinvents itself. Food Technol 55(3):43–49Google Scholar
- Potter N, Hotchkiss J (1998) Food science, 5th edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Research yields new reasons to say cheese. Food Eng 2000b; 72(November):16Google Scholar
- American Dairy Products. Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
- American Whey. Paramus, NJGoogle Scholar
- Associated Milk Producers (AMPI). New Ulm, NMGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Google Scholar
- Cheese varieties and descriptions. Handbook, vol 54. USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Dairy and Food Industries Supply Association, Inc. McLean, VAGoogle Scholar
- How to buy cheese. Home and garden bulletin no. 193. USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- How to buy dairy products. Home and garden bulletin no. 201. USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/probiotics/AN00389—Is it important to include probiotics and prebiotics in a healthy diet?
- Model FDA Food CodeGoogle Scholar
- National Dairy Council. Rosemont, ILGoogle Scholar
- Standards of identity for dairy products—http://milkfacts.info/MilkProcessing/StandardsofIdentity.htm, Part 131—milk and cream—http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_06/21cfr131_06.html, Part 133—cheeses and related cheese products—http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_06/21cfr133_06.html, Part 135—frozen desserts—http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_06/21cfr135_06.html
- USDA ChooseMyPlate.govGoogle Scholar