Inflammation and White Matter Injury in Animal Models of Ischemic Stroke

  • Lyanne C. Schlichter
  • Sarah Hutchings
  • Starlee Lively
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR, volume 4)

Abstract

Ischemic stroke is rarely confined to gray matter, and primary white matter injury occurs in a significant proportion of human strokes. In preclinical investigations searching for stroke therapies, the emphasis is shifting away from primary neurotoxicity to the secondary injury phase, which occurs in a time window that is more amenable to treatment in hospital. This phase is characterized by a prominent inflammatory response in the brain that can last for hours to days. This chapter focuses on the intersection of inflammation and white matter injury in experimental models of ischemic stroke. We first describe the main rodent models and methods used to monitor white matter damage, and discuss we prefer some approaches. Next, we describe the main immune cells involved in animal models of ischemia, how to monitor them, and present key findings. We then summarize the limited literature addressing the intersection of ischemic stroke, white matter injury, and inflammation in adult and neonatal rodent ischemia models, and finally comment on specific needs for further research.

Keywords

Lipase Dementia Aspirin Retina Integrin 

Abbreviations

AchAo

Anterior choroidal artery occlusion

AMPA

2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid

APC

Adenomatous polyposis coli

APP

Amyloid precursor protein

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

BBB

Blood–brain barrier

BCCAo

Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion

CBF

Cerebral blood flow

CNS

Central nervous system

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

CR3A

Complement component receptor 3 alpha

dMBP

Degraded myelin basic protein

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

ET-1

Endothelin-1

FACS

Fluorescence-activated cell sorting

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

H&E

Hematoxylin and eosin

HI

Hypoxia–ischemia

IB4

Isolectin B4

Iba1

Ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1

ICA

Internal carotid artery

ICH

Intracerebral hemorrhage

IL

Interleukin

ITGAM

Integrin alpha M

LCA

Leukocyte common antigen

LFB

Luxol fast blue

Mac-1

Macrophage-1 alpha antigen

MBP

Myelin basic protein

MCAo

Middle cerebral artery occlusion

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

MMP

Matrix metallopeptidase

MPO

Myeloperoxidase

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NKT

Natural killer T cells

NO

Nitric oxide

NOS

Nitric oxide synthase

OGD

Oxygen-glucose deprivation

RAG1

Recombination activating gene 1

TGFβ

Transforming growth factor beta

TIMP

Tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

tPA

Tissue plasminogen activator

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lyanne C. Schlichter
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sarah Hutchings
    • 1
    • 2
  • Starlee Lively
    • 1
  1. 1.Genes & Development, Toronto Western Research InstituteUniversity Health NetworkTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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