White Matter Injury After Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR, volume 4)

Abstract

Of the three stroke subtypes, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has the highest death rate and the poorest prognosis in survivors. Indeed, half of ICH patients die and only 10–20 % return to normal activities of daily living. Although the incidence of spontaneous ICH is estimated at ~10–15 % of all strokes, approximately 2 million patients are affected yearly worldwide. Besides spontaneous ICH, intracerebral bleeds also occur following treatment with thrombolytic agents for ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. At present, there are no approved pharmacologic or generally accepted surgical treatments.

Keywords

Ischemia Lactate Heparin Catalase Fibrinogen 

Abbreviations

APP

Amyloid precursor protein

BBB

Blood–brain barrier

CNS

Central nervous system

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

H&E

Hematoxylin and eosin

HO-1

Heme oxygenase-1

ICAM-1

Intracellular adhesion molecule-1

IL-1

Interleukin-1

ICH

Intracerebral hemorrhage

LFB

Luxol fast blue

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinases

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MMPs

Matrix metalloproteinases

NF-kappaB

Nuclear factor-kappaB

NOS

Nitric oxide synthase

Nrf2

Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like factor 2

PPARgamma

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

PARs

Proteinase-activated receptors

STICH

Surgical trial in intracerebral hemorrhage

TBI

Traumatic brain injury

TNF-alpha

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

TUNEL

Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine (dUTP)-biotin nick end labeling

Notes

Acknowledgments

The studies from the author’s laboratory that are described in this review were supported by National Institutes of Health grant R01NS30652 and funds from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research (151), Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Department NeurologyUniversity of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA

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