Sleep Loss in Older Adults: Effects on Waking Performance and Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation with Healthy Aging and Insomnia



Aging is accompanied by changes in sleep quality that include decreases in total sleep time and sleep efficiency as well as increases in wake time after sleep onset and early-morning awakenings. These changes produce an overall decline in sleep quality that can be further exacerbated by behavioral factors such as increased daytime napping and diminished exposure to circadian time cues as well as by a wide variety of medical and neuropsychiatric conditions. Prominent changes in sleep architecture with normal aging include decreases in slow wave sleep time and its accompanying spectral power as well as decreases in rapid eye movement (REM) density in REM sleep and stage 2 sleep spindles and K-complexes in non-REM sleep. Intrinsic circadian rhythms of sleep and wake propensity are damped in amplitude and advanced (shifted to earlier times) in older relative to younger adults. Paradoxically, vigilant attention is less degraded by experimental sleep loss in older vs. younger adults due, possibly, to lesser accumulation of sleep pressure with prolonged waking. Nonetheless, sleep-dependent memory consolidation, a cognitive process taking place during sleep itself, is strongly impacted by normal aging. Specifically, sleep-dependent consolidation of procedural memory, such as learning a specific motor sequence, is diminished with aging, whereas sleep continues to facilitate consolidation of declarative memory (e.g., verbal memory) in older adults. Despite buffering of vigilance against sleep loss and preservation of some forms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation with healthy aging, the concurrent degradation of sleep due to medical and neuropsychiatric issues in many elders may greatly reduce benefits to cognition provided by sleep in younger adults. A prominent example of such is the mutually exacerbating conditions of anxiety and insomnia. Thus, treatment of anxiety and/or insomnia may help to restore other cognitive benefits of good sleep in the elderly.


Obstructive Sleep Apnea Slow Wave Sleep Sleep Loss Slow Wave Activity Sleep Spindle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Landolt HP, Retey JV, Adam M. Reduced neurobehavioral impairment from sleep deprivation in older adults: contribution of adenosinergic mechanisms. Front Neurol. 2012;3:62. Epub 2012/05/05.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carrier J, Land S, Buysse DJ, Kupfer DJ, Monk TH. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20–60 years old). Psychophysiology. 2001;38(2):232–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dijk DJ, Groeger JA, Stanley N, Deacon S. Age-related reduction in daytime sleep propensity and nocturnal slow wave sleep. Sleep. 2010;33(2):211–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vitiello MV. Sleep in normal aging. Sleep Med Clin. 2006;1:171–6.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crowley K. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults. Neuropsychol Rev. 2011;21(1):41–53. Epub 2011/01/13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wolitzky-Taylor KB, Castriotta N, Lenze EJ, Stanley MA, Craske MG. Anxiety disorders in older adults: a comprehensive review. Depress Anxiety. 2010;27(2):190–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Foley D, Ancoli-Israel S, Britz P, Walsh J. Sleep disturbances and chronic disease in older adults: results of the 2003 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Survey. J Psychosom Res. 2004;56(5):497–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bliwise D. Normal aging. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, editors. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2011.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pace-Schott EF, Spencer RM. Age-related changes in the cognitive function of sleep. Prog Brain Res. 2011;191:75–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Colrain IM. Sleep and the brain. Neuropsychol Rev. 2011;21(1):1–4. Epub 2011/01/25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dijk DJ, Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. Contribution of circadian physiology and sleep homeostasis to age-related changes in human sleep. Chronobiol Int. 2000;17(3):285–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Naylor E, Zee PC. Circadian rhythm alterations with aging. Sleep Med Clin. 2006;1:187–96.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buysse DJ, Monk TH, Carrier J, Begley A. Circadian patterns of sleep, sleepiness, and performance in older and younger adults. Sleep. 2005;28(11):1365–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    O’Donnell D, Silva EJ, Munch M, Ronda JM, Wang W, Duffy JF. Comparison of subjective and objective assessments of sleep in healthy older subjects without sleep complaints. J Sleep Res. 2009;18(2):254–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang YL, Liu RY, Wang QS, Van Someren EJ, Xu H, Zhou JN. Age-associated difference in circadian sleep-wake and rest-activity rhythms. Physiol Behav. 2002;76(4–5):597–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dijk DJ, Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. Age-related increase in awakenings: impaired consolidation of nonREM sleep at all circadian phases. Sleep. 2001;24(5):565–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salzarulo P, Fagioli I, Lombardo P, Gori S, Gneri C, Chiaramonti R, et al. Sleep stages preceding spontaneous awakenings in the elderly. Sleep Res Online. 1999;2(3):73–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Silva EJ, Duffy JF. Sleep inertia varies with circadian phase and sleep stage in older adults. Behav Neurosci. 2008;122(4):928–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hoch CC, Dew MA, Reynolds III CF, Buysse DJ, Nowell PD, Monk TH, et al. Longitudinal changes in diary- and laboratory-based sleep measures in healthy “old old” and “young old” subjects: a three-year follow-up. Sleep. 1997;20(3):192–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hoch CC, Dew MA, Reynolds III CF, Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Houck PR, et al. A longitudinal study of laboratory- and diary-based sleep measures in healthy “old old” and “young old” volunteers. Sleep. 1994;17(6):489–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carskadon MA, Brown ED, Dement WC. Sleep fragmentation in the elderly: relationship to daytime sleep tendency. Neurobiol Aging. 1982;3(4):321–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Martin JL, Ancoli Israel S. Napping in older adults. Sleep Med Clin. 2006;1:177–86.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Campbell SS, Kripke DF, Gillin JC, Hrubovcak JC. Exposure to light in healthy elderly subjects and Alzheimer’s patients. Physiol Behav. 1988;42(2):141–4. Epub 1988/01/01.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Asplund R, Aberg H. Nocturnal micturition, sleep and well-being in women of ages 40–64 years. Maturitas. 1996;24(1–2):73–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ancoli-Israel S, DuHamel ER, Stepnowsky C, Engler R, Cohen-Zion M, Marler M. The relationship between congestive heart failure, sleep apnea, and mortality in older men. Chest. 2003;124(4):1400–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Riegel B, Weaver TE. Poor sleep and impaired self-care: towards a comprehensive model linking sleep, cognition, and heart failure outcomes. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2009;8(5):337–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Petit D, Gagnon JF, Fantini ML, Ferini-Strambi L, Montplaisir J. Sleep and quantitative EEG in neurodegenerative disorders. J Psychosom Res. 2004;56(5):487–96. Epub 2004/06/03.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cajochen C, Munch M, Knoblauch V, Blatter K, Wirz-Justice A. Age-related changes in the circadian and homeostatic regulation of human sleep. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23(1–2):461–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ohayon MM, Carskadon MA, Guilleminault C, Vitiello MV. Meta-analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old age in healthy individuals: developing normative sleep values across the human lifespan. Sleep. 2004;27(7):1255–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Carrier J, Viens I, Poirier G, Robillard R, Lafortune M, Vandewalle G, et al. Sleep slow wave changes during the middle years of life. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33(4):758–66. Epub 2011/01/14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Darchia N, Campbell IG, Tan X, Feinberg I. Kinetics of NREM delta EEG power density across NREM periods depend on age and on delta-band designation. Sleep. 2007;30(1):71–9. Epub 2007/02/22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Munch M, Knoblauch V, Blatter K, Schroder C, Schnitzler C, Krauchi K, et al. The frontal predominance in human EEG delta activity after sleep loss decreases with age. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20(5):1402–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lombardo P, Formicola G, Gori S, Gneri C, Massetani R, Murri L, et al. Slow wave sleep (SWS) distribution across night sleep episode in the elderly. Aging (Milano). 1998;10(6):445–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fukuda N, Honma H, Kohsaka M, Kobayashi R, Sakakibara S, Kohsaka S, et al. Gender difference of slow wave sleep in middle aged and elderly subjects. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999;53(2):151–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Floyd JA, Janisse JJ, Jenuwine ES, Ager JW. Changes in REM-sleep percentage over the adult lifespan. Sleep. 2007;30(7):829–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Darchia N, Campbell IG, Feinberg I. Rapid eye movement density is reduced in the normal elderly. Sleep. 2003;26(8):973–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Crowley K, Trinder J, Kim Y, Carrington M, Colrain IM. The effects of normal aging on sleep spindle and K-complex production. Clin Neurophysiol. 2002;113(10):1615–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Landolt HP, Dijk DJ, Achermann P, Borbely AA. Effect of age on the sleep EEG: slow-wave activity and spindle frequency activity in young and middle-aged men. Brain Res. 1996;738(2):205–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wei HG, Riel E, Czeisler CA, Dijk DJ. Attenuated amplitude of circadian and sleep-dependent modulation of electroencephalographic sleep spindle characteristics in elderly human subjects. Neurosci Lett. 1999;260(1):29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Guazzelli M, Feinberg I, Aminoff M, Fein G, Floyd TC, Maggini C. Sleep spindles in normal elderly: comparison with young adult patterns and relation to nocturnal awakening, cognitive function and brain atrophy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1986;63(6):526–39. Epub 1986/06/01.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nicolas A, Petit D, Rompre S, Montplaisir J. Sleep spindle characteristics in healthy subjects of different age groups. Clin Neurophysiol. 2001;112(3):521–7. Epub 2001/02/27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wauquier A. Aging and changes in phasic events during sleep. Physiol Behav. 1993;54(4):803–6. Epub 1993/10/01.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Crowley K, Trinder J, Colrain IM. An examination of evoked K-complex amplitude and frequency of occurrence in the elderly. J Sleep Res. 2002;11(2):129–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Harrison Y, Horne JA, Rothwell A. Prefrontal neuropsychological effects of sleep deprivation in young adults—a model for healthy aging? Sleep. 2000;23(8):1067–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bonnet MH, Arand DL. Sleep loss in aging. Clin Geriatr Med. 1989;5(2):405–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Adam M, Retey JV, Khatami R, Landolt HP. Age-related changes in the time course of vigilant attention during 40 hours without sleep in men. Sleep. 2006;29(1):55–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Duffy JF, Willson HJ, Wang W, Czeisler CA. Healthy older adults better tolerate sleep deprivation than young adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(7):1245–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Blatter K, Graw P, Munch M, Knoblauch V, Wirz-Justice A, Cajochen C. Gender and age differences in psychomotor vigilance performance under differential sleep pressure conditions. Behav Brain Res. 2006;168(2):312–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Philip P, Taillard J, Sagaspe P, Valtat C, Sanchez-Ortuno M, Moore N, et al. Age, performance and sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res. 2004;13(2):105–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bliese PD, Wesensten NJ, Balkin TJ. Age and individual variability in performance during sleep restriction. J Sleep Res. 2006;15(4):376–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stenuit P, Kerkhofs M. Age modulates the effects of sleep restriction in women. Sleep. 2005;28(10):1283–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bonnet MH. The effect of sleep fragmentation on sleep and performance in younger and older subjects. Neurobiol Aging. 1989;10(1):21–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bonnet MH, Rosa RR. Sleep and performance in young adults and older normals and insomniacs during acute sleep loss and recovery. Biol Psychol. 1987;25(2):153–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Carskadon MA, Dement WC. Sleep loss in elderly volunteers. Sleep. 1985;8(3):207–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Smulders FT, Kenemans JL, Jonkman LM, Kok A. The effects of sleep loss on task performance and the electroencephalogram in young and elderly subjects. Biol Psychol. 1997;45(1–3):217–39. Epub 1997/03/21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Brendel DH, Reynolds III CF, Jennings JR, Hoch CC, Monk TH, Berman SR, et al. Sleep stage physiology, mood, and vigilance responses to total sleep deprivation in healthy 80-year-olds and 20-year-olds. Psychophysiology. 1990;27(6):677–85. Epub 1990/11/01.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Roge J, Pebayle T, El Hannachi S, Muzet A. Effect of sleep deprivation and driving duration on the useful visual field in younger and older subjects during simulator driving. Vision Res. 2003;43(13):1465–72. Epub 2003/05/28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Robillard R, Prince F, Filipini D, Carrier J. Aging worsens the effects of sleep deprivation on postural control. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28731. Epub 2011/12/14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dijk DJ, Duffy JF, Riel E, Shanahan TL, Czeisler CA. Ageing and the circadian and homeostatic regulation of human sleep during forced desynchrony of rest, melatonin and temperature rhythms. J Physiol. 1999;516(Pt 2):611–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Silva EJ, Wang W, Ronda JM, Wyatt JK, Duffy JF. Circadian and wake-dependent influences on subjective sleepiness, cognitive throughput, and reaction time performance in older and young adults. Sleep. 2010;33(4):481–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Borbely AA. A two process model of sleep regulation. Hum Neurobiol. 1982;1(3):195–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dijk DJ, Czeisler CA. Paradoxical timing of the circadian rhythm of sleep propensity serves to consolidate sleep and wakefulness in humans. Neurosci Lett. 1994;166(1):63–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hofman MA, Swaab DF. Living by the clock: the circadian pacemaker in older people. Ageing Res Rev. 2006;5(1):33–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kondratova AA, Kondratov RV. The circadian clock and pathology of the ageing brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13(5):325–35. Epub 2012/03/08.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Monk TH. Aging human circadian rhythms: conventional wisdom may not always be right. J Biol Rhythms. 2005;20(4):366–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Skene DJ, Swaab DF. Melatonin rhythmicity: effect of age and Alzheimer’s disease. Exp Gerontol. 2003;38(1–2):199–206. Epub 2003/01/25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Duffy JF, Dijk DJ, Klerman EB, Czeisler CA. Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people. Am J Physiol. 1998;275(5 Pt 2):R1478–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Czeisler CA, Duffy JF, Shanahan TL, Brown EN, Mitchell JF, Rimmer DW, et al. Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker. Science. 1999;284(5423):2177–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Benloucif S, Green K, L’Hermite-Baleriaux M, Weintraub S, Wolfe LF, Zee PC. Responsiveness of the aging circadian clock to light. Neurobiol Aging. 2006;27(12):1870–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Van Someren EJ, Riemersma RF, Swaab DF. Functional plasticity of the circadian timing system in old age: light exposure. Prog Brain Res. 2002;138:205–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Van Someren EJ. Circadian and sleep disturbances in the elderly. Exp Gerontol. 2000;35(9–10):1229–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bliwise DL. Normal aging. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, editors. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2005. p. 24–38.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ohayon MM, Zulley J, Guilleminault C, Smirne S, Priest RG. How age and daytime activities are related to insomnia in the general population: consequences for older people. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(4):360–6. Epub 2001/05/12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Achermann P, Dijk DJ, Brunner DP, Borbely AA. A model of human sleep homeostasis based on EEG slow-wave activity: quantitative comparison of data and simulations. Brain Res Bull. 1993;31(1–2):97–113. Epub 1993/01/01.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Klerman EB, Dijk DJ. Age-related reduction in the maximal capacity for sleep—implications for insomnia. Curr Biol. 2008;18(15):1118–23. Epub 2008/07/29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gaudreau H, Morettini J, Lavoie HB, Carrier J. Effects of a 25-h sleep deprivation on daytime sleep in the middle-aged. Neurobiol Aging. 2001;22(3):461–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Campbell IG, Feinberg I. Homeostatic sleep response to naps is similar in normal elderly and young adults. Neurobiol. Aging 2005;26(1):135–44.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Munch M, Knoblauch V, Blatter K, Wirz-Justice A, Cajochen C. Is homeostatic sleep regulation under low sleep pressure modified by age? Sleep. 2007;30(6):781–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Meyer PT, Elmenhorst D, Boy C, Winz O, Matusch A, Zilles K, et al. Effect of aging on cerebral A1 adenosine receptors: a [18F]CPFPX PET study in humans. Neurobiol Aging. 2007;28(12):1914–24. Epub 2006/09/26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Diekelmann S, Born J. The memory function of sleep. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010;11(2):114–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stickgold R. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Nature. 2005;437(7063):1272–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Donohue K, Spencer RMC. Continuous re-exposure to environmental sound cues during sleep does not improve memory for semantically unrelated word pairs. J Cognit Educ Psychol. 2011;10(2):167–77.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tucker MA, Hirota Y, Wamsley EJ, Lau H, Chaklader A, Fishbein W. A daytime nap containing solely non-REM sleep enhances declarative but not procedural memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2006;86(2):241–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stickgold R, Walker MP. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Sleep Med. 2007;8(4):331–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ji D, Wilson MA. Coordinated memory replay in the visual cortex and hippocampus during sleep. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10(1):100–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Peigneux P, Laureys S, Fuchs S, Collette F, Perrin F, Reggers J, et al. Are spatial memories strengthened in the human hippocampus during slow wave sleep? Neuron. 2004;44(3):535–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Spencer RM, Gouw AM, Ivry RB. Age-related decline of sleep-dependent consolidation. Learn Mem. 2007;14(7):480–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wilson JK, Baran B, Pace-Schott EF, Ivry RB, Spencer RM. Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33(5):991–1000. Epub 2012/01/17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Siengsukon CF, Boyd LA. Sleep enhances implicit motor skill learning in individuals poststroke. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2008;15(1):1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Siengsukon C, Boyd LA. Sleep enhances off-line spatial and temporal motor learning after stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009;23(4):327–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Peters KR, Ray L, Smith V, Smith C. Changes in the density of stage 2 sleep spindles following motor learning in young and older adults. J Sleep Res. 2008;17(1):23–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tucker M, McKinley S, Stickgold R. Sleep optimizes motor skill in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59(4):603–9. Epub 2011/03/18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Aly M, Moscovitch M. The effects of sleep on episodic memory in older and younger adults. Memory. 2010;18(3):327–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Seeck-Hirschner M, Baier PC, Weinhold SL, Dittmar M, Heiermann S, Aldenhoff JB, et al. Declarative memory performance is associated with the number of sleep spindles in elderly women. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012;20(9):782–8. Epub 2011/10/15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Scullin MK. Sleep, memory, and aging: the link between slow-wave sleep and episodic memory changes from younger to older adults. Psychol Aging. 2013;28(1):105–14. Epub 2012/06/20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Backhaus J, Born J, Hoeckesfeld R, Fokuhl S, Hohagen F, Junghanns K. Midlife decline in declarative memory consolidation is correlated with a decline in slow wave sleep. Learn Mem. 2007;14(5):336–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Westerberg CE, Lundgren EM, Florczak SM, Mesulam MM, Weintraub S, Zee PC, et al. Sleep influences the severity of memory disruption in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: results from sleep self-assessment and continuous activity monitoring. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2010;24:325–33. Epub 2010/07/02.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Westerberg CE, Mander BA, Florczak SM, Weintraub S, Mesulam MM, Zee PC, et al. Concurrent impairments in sleep and memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2012;18(3):490–500. Epub 2012/02/04.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rauchs G, Schabus M, Parapatics S, Bertran F, Clochon P, Hot P, et al. Is there a link between sleep changes and memory in Alzheimer’s disease? Neuroreport. 2008;19(11):1159–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cipolli C, Mazzetti M, Plazzi G. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in patients with sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2013;17(2):91–103. Epub 2012/04/07.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Djonlagic I, Saboisky J, Carusona A, Stickgold R, Malhotra A. Increased sleep fragmentation leads to impaired off-line consolidation of motor memories in humans. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e34106. Epub 2012/04/04.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kloepfer C, Riemann D, Nofzinger EA, Feige B, Unterrainer J, O’Hara R, et al. Memory before and after sleep in patients with moderate obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5(6):540–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ancoli-Israel S, Ayalon L, Salzman C. Sleep in the elderly: normal variations and common sleep disorders. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2008;16(5):279–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Neikrug AB, Ancoli-Israel S. Sleep disorders in the older adult—a mini-review. Gerontology. 2010;56(2):181–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Morphy H, Dunn KM, Lewis M, Boardman HF, Croft PR. Epidemiology of insomnia: a longitudinal study in a UK population. Sleep. 2007;30(3):274–80. Epub 2007/04/12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Foley DJ, Monjan AA, Brown SL, Simonsick EM, Wallace RB, Blazer DG. Sleep complaints among elderly persons: an epidemiologic study of three communities. Sleep. 1995;18(6):425–32. Epub 1995/07/01.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Giron MS, Forsell Y, Bernsten C, Thorslund M, Winblad B, Fastbom J. Sleep problems in a very old population: drug use and clinical correlates. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002;57(4):M236–40. Epub 2002/03/23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Spira AP, Friedman L, Flint A, Sheikh JI. Interaction of sleep disturbances and anxiety in later life: perspectives and recommendations for future research. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2005;18(2):109–15. Epub 2005/05/25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bootzin RR, Epstein DR. Understanding and treating insomnia. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2011;7:435–58. Epub 2007/08/25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Magee JC, Carmin CN. The relationship between sleep and anxiety in older adults. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2010;12(1):13–9. Epub 2010/04/29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Beland SG, Preville M, Dubois MF, Lorrain D, Voyer P, Bosse C, et al. The association between length of benzodiazepine use and sleep quality in older population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;26(9):908–15. Epub 2010/10/22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Bruce AS, Aloia M. Sleep and cognition in older adults. Sleep Med Clin. 2006;1:207–20.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Whitney CW, Enright PL, Newman AB, Bonekat W, Foley D, Quan SF. Correlates of daytime sleepiness in 4578 elderly persons: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Sleep. 1998;21(1):27–36. Epub 1998/03/05.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ohayon MM, Vecchierini MF. Daytime sleepiness and cognitive impairment in the elderly population. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(2):201–8. Epub 2002/02/13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Spira AP, Friedman L, Aulakh JS, Lee T, Sheikh JI, Yesavage JA. Subclinical anxiety symptoms, sleep, and daytime dysfunction in older adults with primary insomnia. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2008;21(2):149–53. Epub 2008/05/14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Spira AP, Stone K, Beaudreau SA, Ancoli-Israel S, Yaffe K. Anxiety symptoms and objectively measured sleep quality in older women. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;17(2):136–43. Epub 2009/01/22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Beekman AT, Bremmer MA, Deeg DJ, van Balkom AJ, Smit JH, de Beurs E, et al. Anxiety disorders in later life: a report from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1998;13(10):717–26. Epub 1998/11/18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Schuurmans J, Comijs HC, Beekman AT, de Beurs E, Deeg DJ, Emmelkamp PM, et al. The outcome of anxiety disorders in older people at 6-year follow-up: results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005;111(6):420–8. Epub 2005/05/10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Schaub RT, Linden M. Anxiety and anxiety disorders in the old and very old—results from the Berlin Aging Study (BASE). Compr Psychiatry. 2000;41(2 Suppl 1):48–54. Epub 2000/04/04.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Neckelmann D, Mykletun A, Dahl AA. Chronic insomnia as a risk factor for developing anxiety and depression. Sleep. 2007;30(7):873–80. Epub 2007/08/09.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    de Beurs E, Beekman AT, Deeg DJ, Van Dyck R, van Tilburg W. Predictors of change in anxiety symptoms of older persons: results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Psychol Med. 2000;30(3):515–27. Epub 2000/07/07.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, Newman AB, Hirsch C, Gottdiener J, et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56(3):M146–56. Epub 2001/03/17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ensrud KE, Blackwell TL, Ancoli-Israel S, Redline S, Cawthon PM, Paudel ML, et al. Sleep disturbances and risk of frailty and mortality in older men. Sleep Med. 2012;13(10):1217–25. Epub 2012/06/19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Ensrud KE, Blackwell TL, Redline S, Ancoli-Israel S, Paudel ML, Cawthon PM, et al. Sleep disturbances and frailty status in older community-dwelling men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(11):2085–93. Epub 2009/10/02.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Spira AP, Covinsky K, Rebok GW, Punjabi NM, Stone KL, Hillier TA, et al. Poor sleep quality and functional decline in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(6):1092–8. Epub 2012/06/14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Potvin O, Lorrain D, Forget H, Dube M, Grenier S, Preville M, et al. Sleep quality and 1-year incident cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults. Sleep. 2012;35(4):491–9. Epub 2012/04/03.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Keage HA, Banks S, Yang KL, Morgan K, Brayne C, Matthews FE. What sleep characteristics predict cognitive decline in the elderly? Sleep Med. 2012;13(7):886–92. Epub 2012/05/09.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Cochrane A, Robertson IH, Coogan AN. Association between circadian rhythms, sleep and cognitive impairment in healthy older adults: an actigraphic study. J Neural Transm. 2012;119(10):1233–9. Epub 2012/04/11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Tranah GJ, Blackwell T, Stone KL, Ancoli-Israel S, Paudel ML, Ensrud KE, et al. Circadian activity rhythms and risk of incident dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older women. Ann Neurol. 2011;70(5):722–32. Epub 2011/12/14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Naismith SL, Norrie L, Lewis SJ, Rogers NL, Scott EM, Hickie IB. Does sleep disturbance mediate neuropsychological functioning in older people with depression? J Affect Disord. 2009;116(1–2):139–43. Epub 2009/01/09.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Mallon L, Broman J-E, Hetta J. Sleeping difficulties in relation to depression and anxiety in elderly adults. Nord J Psychiatry. 2000;54:355–60.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Perlis ML, Smith LJ, Lyness JM, Matteson SR, Pigeon WR, Jungquist CR, et al. Insomnia as a risk factor for onset of depression in the elderly. Behav Sleep Med. 2006;4(2):104–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Backhaus J, Junghanns K, Born J, Hohaus K, Faasch F, Hohagen F. Impaired declarative memory consolidation during sleep in patients with primary insomnia: Influence of sleep architecture and nocturnal cortisol release. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60(12):1324–30. Epub 2006/08/01.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Nissen C, Kloepfer C, Nofzinger EA, Feige B, Voderholzer U, Riemann D. Impaired sleep-related memory consolidation in primary insomnia—a pilot study. Sleep. 2006;29(8):1068–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Genzel L, Ali E, Dresler M, Steiger A, Tesfaye M. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation of a new task is inhibited in psychiatric patients. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(4):555–60. Epub 2010/09/28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Dresler M, Kluge M, Genzel L, Schussler P, Steiger A. Impaired off-line memory consolidation in depression. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;20(8):553–61. Epub 2010/03/05.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Manoach DS, Cain MS, Vangel MG, Khurana A, Goff DC, Stickgold R. A failure of sleep-dependent procedural learning in chronic, medicated schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56(12):951–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Manoach DS, Thakkar KN, Stroynowski E, Ely A, McKinley SK, Wamsley E, et al. Reduced overnight consolidation of procedural learning in chronic medicated schizophrenia is related to specific sleep stages. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44(2):112–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wamsley EJ, Tucker MA, Shinn AK, Ono KE, McKinley SK, Ely AV, et al. Reduced sleep spindles and spindle coherence in schizophrenia: mechanisms of impaired memory consolidation? Biol Psychiatry. 2012;71(2):154–61. Epub 2011/10/05.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Schutte-Rodin S, Broch L, Buysse D, Dorsey C, Sateia M. Clinical guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(5):487–504. Epub 2008/10/16.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward F. Pace-Schott
    • 1
  • Rebecca M. C. Spencer
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryHarvard Medical School, Massachusetts General HospitalCharlestownUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and Neuroscience and Behavior ProgramUniversity of Massachusetts, AmherstAmherstUSA

Personalised recommendations