Trigger Point Injections

Part of the Musculoskeletal Medicine book series (MUM)


Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) as defined by Travell and Simons is characterized by trigger points (TrP), limited ROM of the affected muscle(s), and neurologic symptoms (autonomic, proprioceptive) (Simons DG, Travell JG, Postgrad Med 73:66–108, 1983). The diagnosis of MPS is based on the presence of 1 or more trigger points. Trigger points (TrP) can be latent or active (Simons DG, Travell JG, Postgrad Med 73:66–108, 1983). Latent TrP are associated with stiffness and restricted ROM but no pain unless palpated. Active TrP produce a referred pain pattern specific to that muscle spontaneously and when the TrP is palpated. The physical findings for diagnosis of a myofascial trigger point are (1) palpation of a tender nodule in a taut band, (2) a referred pain pattern specific for the muscle, (3) a local twitch response (LTR) with snapping palpation or triggering with needle, and (4) restricted ROM (Travell J, Simons DG, Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual, vol 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1983).


Trigger Point Trapezius Muscle Myofascial Pain Syndrome Spinal Accessory Nerve Randomized Control Trial Study 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA

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