• Andrzej Lasia


Among the various electrochemical techniques, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) holds a special place. The classical electrochemical techniques present measurements of currents, electrical charges or electrode potentials as functions of time (which can also be related to the electrode potential). In contrast, EIS presents the signal as a function of frequency at a constant potential. This often poses some problems in understanding what is happening because electrochemists try to think in terms of time, not frequency. On the other hand, in optical spectroscopy, nobody thinks that light consists of the sinusoidal oscillations of electric and magnetic vectors of various frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. In spectroscopy, we used to think in terms of the frequency space (wave number, frequency, or some related functions as wavelength) and that what we observed was the Fourier transform of the optical signal.


Fuel Cell Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Porous Electrode Impedance Plot 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    D.D. Macdonald, Electrochim. Acta 51, 1376 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.D. Macdonald, Reflections on the history of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Paper presented at 6th international symposium on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Cocoa Beach, Florida, 17–21 May 2004Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.E. Orazem, B. Tribollet, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    O. Heaviside, Electrical Papers, vols. 1–2 (MacMillan, New York, 1894)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Nernst, Z. Elektrochem. 14, 622 (1894)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    K.S. Cole, R.H. Cole, J. Chem. Phys. 9, 341 (1941)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D.W. Davidson, R.H. Cole, J. Chem. Phys. 19, 1484 (1951)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Warburg, Ann. Phys. Chem. 67, 493 (1899)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P.I. Dolin, B.V. Ershler, Acta Physicochem. URSS 13, 747 (1940)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.E.B. Randles, Trans. Farad. Soc. 1, 11 (1947); J.E.B. Randles, in Transactions of the Symposium on Electrode Processes, ed. by E. Yeager, (Wiley, New York, 1961), p. 209Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Gabrielli, Identification of electrochemical processes by frequency response analysis, Technical Report Nr 004/83, Solartron Analytical, Issue 3, March 1998Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Delahay, New Instrumental Methods in Electrochemistry (Interscience, New York, 1954)Google Scholar
  13. 22.
    I. Rubinstein (ed.), Physical Electrochemistry, Principles, Methods, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995)Google Scholar
  14. 23.
    J.R. Macdonald (ed.), Impedance Spectroscopy: Emphasizing Solid Materials and Systems, 1st edn. (Wiley, New York, 2001)Google Scholar
  15. 24.
    E. Barsoukov, J.R. Macdonald (eds.), Impedance Spectroscopy: Theory, Experiment, and Applications, 2nd edn. (Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, 2005)Google Scholar
  16. 25.
    V.F. Lvovich, Impedance Spectroscopy, Applications to Electrochemical and Dielectric Phenomena (Wiley, Hoboken, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 26.
    X.-Z. Yuan, C. Song, H. Wang, J. Zhang, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in PEMFuel Cells (Springer, London, 2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 27.
    Z.B. Stoynov, B.M. Grafov, B.S. Savova-Stoynova, V.V. Elkin, V.V. Elkin, Electrochemical Impedance (Nauka, Moscow, 1991) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  19. 28.
    Z. Stoynov, D. Vladikova, Differential Impedance Analysis (Marin Drinov Academic Publishing House, Sofia, 2005)Google Scholar
  20. 29.
    D.E. Smith, AC polarography and related techniques: theory and practice, in Electroanalytical Chemistry: A Series of Advances, ed. by A.J. Bard, vol. 1 (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1966), pp. 1–155Google Scholar
  21. 72.
    A. Lasia, Modeling of impedances of porous electrodes, in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, ed. by M. Schlesinger, vol. 43 (Springer, New York, 2009), pp. 67–138Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrzej Lasia
    • 1
  1. 1.Département de chimieUniversité de SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada

Personalised recommendations