Advertisement

Cardiac MRI Examination: An Overview

  • Michael J. Campbell
Chapter

Abstract

Congenital heart disease is the most common birth defect occurring in 4.8/1,000 births (Ferencz et al. (1993) Epidemiology of congenital heart disease: the Baltimore Washington Infant Study 1981–1989. Futura Publishing, Mount Kisco). Previously, many patients with complex congenital heart disease did not survive to adulthood, confining the field of congenital heart disease to pediatric specialists. With improved medical, diagnostic, and interventional techniques, many patients with congenital heart disease are surviving to adulthood (Marelli et al., Circulation 115:163–172, 2007; Williams et al., J Am Coll Cardiol 47:701–707, 2006). This has created a need for adult providers who are familiar with congenital heart disease and therapies. The increase in the number of congenital heart disease patients has also highlighted a need for further investigation and research with a goal of improved mortality and quality of life.

The first imaging modality used in the imaging of congenital heart disease patients was radiography (Taussig (1947) Congenital malformations of the heart. The Commonwealth Fund, New York). Taussig used radiography and fluoroscopy to image the thorax of patients and compared her finding to the clinical presentation and physical examination. As a result, she characterized the radiographic appearance of the thorax to particular congenital heart defects (Taussig (1947) Congenital malformations of the heart. The Commonwealth Fund, New York). The field of angiography and cardiac catheterization arose from this technology and experience. Angiography was the mainstay of congenital heart disease imaging until the late 1970s and early 1980s. The emergence of echocardiography in the late 1980s led to its replacement of cardiac catheterization as the leading diagnostic modality. Echocardiography’s ability to provide morphologic, hemodynamic, and functional assessment in a safe and noninvasive manner was the primary reason. However, echocardiography has limitations, particularly in patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD).

Keywords

Congenital Heart Disease Atrial Septal Defect Superior Vena Cava Atrioventricular Valve Branch Pulmonary Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Ferencz C, Loffredo CA, Rubin JD, et al. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease: the Baltimore Washington Infant Study 1981–1989. Mount Kisco: Futura Publishing; 1993.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marelli AJ, Mackie AS, Ionescu-Ittu R, Rahme E, Pilote L. Congenital heart disease in the general population: changing prevalence and age distribution. Circulation. 2007;115(2):163–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Williams RG, Pearson GD, Barst RJ, Child JS, del Nido P, Gersony WM, Kuehl KS, Landzberg MJ, Myerson M, Neish SR, Sahn DJ, Verstappen A, Warnes CA, Webb CL, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on Research in Adult Congenital Heart Disease. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on research in adult congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(4):701–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Taussig HB. Congenital malformations of the heart. New York: The Commonwealth Fund; 1947.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ahmed S, Shellock FG. Magnetic resonance imaging safety: implications for cardiovascular patients. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2001;3(3):171–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee V. Cardiovascular MR imaging. Physical principles to practical protocols. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kim HW, Crowley AL, Kim RJ. A clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance service: operational considerations and the basic examination. Cardiol Clin. 2007;25(1):1–13, v.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Geva T, Powell AJ. Chapter 7: magnetic resonance imaging. In: Allen HD, Driscoll DJ, Shaddy RE, Feltes TF, editors. Moss and Adams’ heart disease in infants, children and adolescents. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2008. p. 163–99.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carr JC, Simonetti O, Bundy J, Li D, Pereles S, Finn JP. Cine MR angiography of the heart with segmented true fast imaging with steady-state precession. Radiology. 2001;219(3):828–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Warnes CA. Adult congenital heart disease importance of the right ventricle. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54:1903–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Valente AM, Sena L, Powell AJ, Del Nido PJ, Geva T. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of sinus venosus defects: comparison to surgical findings. Pediatr Cardiol. 2007;28(1):51–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thomson LE, Crowley AL, Heitner JF, Cawley PJ, Weinsaft JW, Kim HW, Parker M, Judd RM, Harrison JK, Kim RJ. Direct en face imaging of secundum atrial septal defects by velocity-encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients evaluated for possible transcatheter closure. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2008;1(1):31–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Snider AR, Serwer GA, Ritter SB. Echocardiography in pediatric heart disease. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book Inc; 1997.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fratz S, Schuhbaeck A, Buchner C, Busch R, Meierhofer C, Martinoff S, Hess J, Stern H. Comparison of accuracy of axial slices versus short-axis slices for measuring ventricular volumes by cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Cardiol. 2009;103(12):1764–9. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.02.030. Epub 2009 May 4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sechtem U, Pflugfelder PW, Gould RG, Cassidy MM, Higgins CB. Measurement of right and left ventricular volumes in healthy individuals with cine MR imaging. Radiology. 1987;163(3):697–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grothues F, Moon JC, Bellenger NG, Smith GS, Klein HU, Pennell DJ. Interstudy reproducibility of right ventricular volumes, function, and mass with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Am Heart J. 2004;147(2):218–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Koch JA, Poll LW, Godehardt E, Korbmacher B, Jung G, Mödder U. In vitro determination of cardiac ventricular volumes using MRI at 1.0 T in a porcine heart model. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2001;17(3):237–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Buser PT, Auffermann W, Holt WW, Wagner S, Kircher B, Wolfe C, Higgins CB. Noninvasive evaluation of global left ventricular function with use of cine nuclear magnetic resonance. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1989;13(6):1294–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grothues F, Smith GC, Moon JC, Bellenger NG, Collins P, Klein HU, Pennell DJ. Comparison of interstudy reproducibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance with two-dimensional echocardiography in normal subjects and in patients with heart failure or left ventricular hypertrophy. Am J Cardiol. 2002;90(1):29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mogelvang J, Stokholm KH, Stubgaard M. Assessment of right ventricular volumes by magnetic resonance imaging and by radionuclide angiography. Am J Noninvasive Cardiol. 1991;5:321–7.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maceira AM, Prasad SK, Khan M, Pennell DJ. Normalized left ventricular systolic and diastolic function by steady state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2006;8(3):417–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maceira AM, Prasad SK, Khan M, Pennell DJ. Reference right ventricular systolic and diastolic function normalized to age, gender and body surface area from steady-state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Eur Heart J. 2006;27(23):2879–88. Epub 2006 Nov 6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Samyn MM, Powell AJ, Garg R, Sena L, Geva T. Range of ventricular dimensions and function by steady-state free precession cine MRI in repaired tetralogy of Fallot: right ventricular outflow tract patch vs. conduit repair. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;26(4):934–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Geva T, Sandweiss BM, Gauvreau K, Lock JE, Powell AJ. Factors associated with impaired clinical status in long-term survivors of tetralogy of Fallot repair evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(6):1068–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Oosterhof T, van Straten A, Vliegen HW, Meijboom FJ, van Dijk AP, Spijkerboer AM, Bouma BJ, Zwinderman AH, Hazekamp MG, de Roos A, Mulder BJ. Preoperative thresholds for pulmonary valve replacement in patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Circulation. 2007;116(5):545–51. Epub 2007 Jul 9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Henkens IR, van Straten A, Schalij MJ, Hazekamp MG, de Roos A, van der Wall EE, Vliegen HW. Predicting outcome of pulmonary valve replacement in adult tetralogy of Fallot patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83(3):907–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Knauth AL, Gauvreau K, Powell AJ, Landzberg MJ, Walsh EP, Lock JE, del Nido PJ, Geva T. Ventricular size and function assessed by cardiac MRI predict major adverse clinical outcomes late after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Heart. 2008;94(2):211–6. Epub 2006 Nov 29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Blackstone EH, Kirklin JW, Pacifico AD. Decision-making in repair of tetralogy of Fallot based on intraoperative measurements of pulmonary arterial outflow tract. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1979;77(4):526–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Naito Y, Fujita T, Manabe H, Kawashima Y. The criteria for reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract in total correction of tetralogy of Fallot. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1980;80(4):574–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pacifico AD, Kirklin JW, Blackstone EH. Surgical management of pulmonary stenosis in tetralogy of Fallot. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1977;74(3):382–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Geva T. Repaired tetralogy of Fallot: the roles of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in evaluating pathophysiology and for pulmonary valve replacement decision support. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2011;13:9. doi: 10.1186/1532-429X-13-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cerqueira MD, Weissman NJ, Dilsizian V, Jacobs AK, Kaul S, Laskey WK, Pennell DJ, Rumberger JA, Ryan T, Verani MS, American Heart Association Writing Group on Myocardial Segmentation and Registration for Cardiac Imaging. Standardized myocardial segmentation and nomenclature for tomographic imaging of the heart. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Cardiac Imaging Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2002;105(4):539–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lu JC, Cotts TB, Agarwal PP, Attili AK, Dorfman AL. Relation of right ventricular dilation, age of repair, and restrictive right ventricular physiology with patient-reported quality of life in adolescents and adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Cardiol. 2010;106(12):1798–802. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.08.021. Epub 2010 Nov 2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rathi VK, Doyle M, Yamrozik J, Williams RB, Caruppannan K, Truman C, Vido D, Biederman RW. Routine evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a practical approach. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2008;10:36. doi: 10.1186/1532-429X-10-36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    van den Berg J, Wielopolski PA, Meijboom FJ, Witsenburg M, Bogers AJ, Pattynama PM, Helbing WA. Diastolic function in repaired tetralogy of Fallot at rest and during stress: assessment with MR imaging. Radiology. 2007;243:212–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Helbing WA, Niezen RA, Le Cessie S, van der Geest RJ, Ottenkamp J, de Roos A. Right ventricular diastolic function in children with pulmonary regurgitation after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: volumetric evaluation by magnetic resonance velocity mapping. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996;28:1827–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mirsky I, Parmley WW. Assessment of passive elastic stiffness for isolated heart muscle and the intact heart. Circ Res. 1973;33(2):233–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Heimdal A, Stoylen A, Torp H, Skjaerpe T. Real-time strain rate imaging of the left ventricle by ultrasound. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1998;11(11):1013–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jeung MY, Germain P, Croisille P, El Ghanuddi S, Roy C, Gangi A. Myocardial tagging with MR imaging: overview of normal and pathologic findings. Radiographics. 2012;32(5):1381–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zerhouni EA, Parish DM, Rogers WJ, Yang A, Shapiro EP. Human heart: tagging with MR imaging—a method for noninvasive assessment of myocardial motion. Radiology. 1988;169(1):59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Axel L, Dougherty L. MR imaging of motion with spatial modulation of magnetization. Radiology. 1989;171(3):841–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Osman NF, Kerwin WS, McVeigh ER, Prince JL. Cardiac motion tracking using CINE harmonic phase (HARP) magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Med. 1999;42:1048–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Osman NF, Prince JL. Visualizing myocardial function using HARP MRI. Phys Med Biol. 2000;45:1665–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hor KN, Gottliebson WM, Carson C. Comparison of magnetic resonance feature tracking for strain calculation with harmonic phase imaging analysis. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3(2):144–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Powell AJ, Geva T. Blood flow measurement by magnetic resonance imaging in congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol. 2000;21(1):47–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goldberg A, Jha S. Phase-contrast MRI and applications in congenital heart disease. Clin Radiol. 2012;67(5):399–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hosten N, Gutberlet M, Kühne T, Oellinger H, Vogel M, Böckel T, Böck J, Frank J. Cardiac MR flowmetry: experimental validation and results in patients with operated heart defects. Rofo. 1998;168(5):480–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Didier D, Ratib O, Lerch R, Friedli B. Detection and quantification of valvular heart disease with dynamic cardiac MR imaging. Radiographics. 2000;20(5):1279–99; discussion 1299–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Glockner JF, Johnston DL, McGee KP. Evaluation of cardiac valvular disease with MR imaging: qualitative and quantitative techniques. Radiographics. 2003;23(1):e9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nishimura T, Yamada N, Itoh A, Miyatake K. Cine MR imaging in mitral regurgitation: comparison with color Doppler flow imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989;153(4):721–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fujita N, Chazouilleres AF, Hartiala JJ, O’Sullivan M, Heidenreich P, Kaplan JD, Sakuma H, Foster E, Caputo GR, Higgins CB. Quantification of mitral regurgitation by velocity-encoded cine nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994;23(4):951–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Debl K, Djavidani B, Buchner S, Heinicke N, Poschenrieder F, Feuerbach S, Riegger G, Luchner A. Quantification of left-to-right shunting in adult congenital heart disease: phase-contrast cine MRI compared with invasive oximetry. Br J Radiol. 2009;82(977):386–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Esmaeili A, Höhn R, Koch A, Vogl TJ, Hofstetter R, Abolmaali N. Assessment of shunt volumes in children with ventricular septal defects: comparative quantification of MR flow measurements and invasive oximetry. Clin Res Cardiol. 2006;95(10):523–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Petersen SE, Voigtländer T, Kreitner KF, Kalden P, Wittlinger T, Scharhag J, Horstick G, Becker D, Hommel G, Thelen M, Meyer J. Quantification of shunt volumes in congenital heart diseases using a breath-hold MR phase contrast technique – comparison with oximetry. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2002;18(1):53–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Beerbaum P, Körperich H, Barth P, Esdorn H, Gieseke J, Meyer H. Noninvasive quantification of left-to-right shunt in pediatric patients: phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging compared with invasive oximetry. Circulation. 2001;103(20):2476–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hundley WG, Li HF, Lange RA, Pfeifer DP, Meshack BM, Willard JE, Landau C, Willett D, Hillis LD, Peshock RM. Assessment of left-to-right intracardiac shunting by velocity-encoded, phase-difference magnetic resonance imaging. A comparison with oximetric and indicator dilution techniques. Circulation. 1995;91(12):2955–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Grosse-Wortmann L, Al-Otay A, Yoo SJ. Aortopulmonary collaterals after bidirectional cavopulmonary connection or Fontan completion: quantification with MRI. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009;2:219–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Broadhouse KM, Price AN, Durighel G, Cox DJ, Finnemore AE, Edwards AD, Hajnal JV, Groves AM. Assessment of PDA shunt and systemic blood flow in newborns using cardiac MRI. NMR Biomed. 2013;26(9):1135–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Whitehead KK, Gillespie MJ, Harris MA, Fogel MA, Rome JJ. Noninvasive quantification of systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow: a major source of inefficiency in patients with superior cavopulmonary connections. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009;2(5):405–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Glatz AC, Rome JJ, Small AJ, Gillespie MJ, Dori Y, Harris MA, Keller MS, Fogel MA, Whitehead KK. Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow, as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, is associated with acute post-Fontan clinical outcomes. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;5(2):218–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Grosse-Wortmann L, Yoo SJ, van Arsdell G, Chetan D, Macdonald C, Benson L, Honjo O. Preoperative total pulmonary blood flow predicts right ventricular pressure in patients early after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Spaziani G, Favilli S, Fonda C, Chiappa E. Giant aorto-pulmonary collaterals in pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect: long-term survival in unoperated adults. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2013;14:613–5.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Beerbaum P, Körperich H, Esdorn H, Blanz U, Barth P, Hartmann J, Gieseke J, Meyer H. Atrial septal defects in pediatric patients: noninvasive sizing with cardiovascular MR imaging. Radiology. 2003;228(2):361–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Helbing WA, de Roos A. Clinical applications of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Pediatr Cardiol. 2000;21(1):70–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Johansson B, Babu-Narayan SV, Kilner PJ. The effects of breath-holding on pulmonary regurgitation measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance velocity mapping. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2009;11:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kilner PJ, Firmin DN, Rees RS, Martinez J, Pennell DJ, Mohiaddin RH, Underwood SR, Longmore DB. Valve and great vessel stenosis: assessment with MR jet velocity mapping. Radiology. 1991;178(1):229–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Eichenberger AC, Jenni R, von Schulthess GK. Aortic valve pressure gradients in patients with aortic valve stenosis: quantification with velocity-encoded cine MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1993;160(5):971–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Heidenreich PA, Steffens J, Fujita N, O’Sullivan M, Caputo GR, Foster E, Higgins CB. Evaluation of mitral stenosis with velocity-encoded cine-magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Cardiol. 1995;75(5):365–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Roman KS, Kellenberger CJ, Farooq S, MacGowan CK, Gilday DL, Yoo SJ. Comparative imaging of differential pulmonary blood flow in patients with congenital heart disease: magnetic resonance imaging versus lung perfusion scintigraphy. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35(3):295–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sridharan S, Derrick G, Deanfield J, Taylor AM. Assessment of differential branch pulmonary blood flow: a comparative study of phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide lung perfusion imaging. Heart. 2006;92(7):963–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rupprecht T, Nitz W, Wagner M, Kreissler P, Rascher W, Hofbeck M. Determination of the pressure gradient in children with coarctation of the aorta by low-field magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Cardiol. 2002;23(2):127–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chernoff DM, Derugin N, Rajasinghe HA, Hanley FL, Higgins CB, Gooding CA. Measurement of collateral blood flow in a porcine model of aortic coarctation by velocity-encoded cine MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1997;7:557–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Holmqvist C, Ståhlberg F, Hanséus K, Hochbergs P, Sandström S, Larsson EM, Laurin S. Collateral flow in coarctation of the aorta with magnetic resonance velocity mapping: correlation to morphological imaging of collateral vessels. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2002;15(1):39–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Steffens JC, Bourne MW, Sakuma H, O’Sullivan M, Higgins CB. Quantification of collateral blood flow in coarctation of the aorta by velocity encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation. 1994;90(2):937–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mohiaddin RH, Kilner PJ, Rees S, Longmore DB. Magnetic resonance volume flow and jet velocity mapping in aortic coarctation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993;22:1515–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Julsrud PR, Breen JF, Felmlee JP, Warnes CA, Connolly HM, Schaff HV. Coarctation of the aorta: collateral flow assessment with phase-contrast MR angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169:1735–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bottega NA, Silversides CK, Oechslin EN, Dissanayake K, Harrison JL, Provost Y, Harris L. Stenosis of the superior limb of the systemic venous baffle following a mustard procedure: an under-recognized problem. Int J Cardiol. 2012;154(1):32–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Greenway SC, Yoo SJ, Baliulis G, Caldarone C, Coles J, Grosse-Wortmann L. Assessment of pulmonary veins after atrio-pericardial anastomosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2011;13:72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Grosse-Wortmann L, Al-Otay A, Goo HW, Macgowan CK, Coles JG, Benson LN, Redington AN, Yoo SJ. Anatomical and functional evaluation of pulmonary veins in children by magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49(9):993–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Voges I, Jerosch-Herold M, Hart C, Scheewe J, Gabbert DD, Pardun E, Kramer HH, Rickers C. Anatomical and functional assessment of the intra-atrial lateral tunnel in the Fontan circulation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2013;44(3):462–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hager A, Fratz S, Schwaiger M, Lange R, Hess J, Stern H. Pulmonary blood flow patterns in patients with Fontan circulation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85(1):186–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Whitehead KK, Sundareswaran KS, Parks WJ, Harris MA, Yoganathan AP, Fogel MA. Blood flow distribution in a large series of patients having the Fontan operation: a cardiac magnetic resonance velocity mapping study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;138(1):96–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Klimes K, Abdul-Khaliq H, Ovroutski S, Hui W, Alexi-Meskishvili V, Spors B, Hetzer R, Felix R, Lange PE, Berger F, Gutberlet M. Pulmonary and caval blood flow patterns in patients with intracardiac and extracardiac Fontan: a magnetic resonance study. Clin Res Cardiol. 2007;96(3):160–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Frydrychowicz A, Bley TA, Dittrich S, Hennig J, Langer M, Markl M. Visualization of vascular hemodynamics in a case of a large patent ductus arteriosus using flow sensitive 3D CMR at 3T. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2007;9(3):585–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nett EJ, Johnson KM, Frydrychowicz A, Del Rio AM, Schrauben E, Francois CJ, Wieben O. Four-dimensional phase contrast MRI with accelerated dual velocity encoding. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012;35(6):1462–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hope MD, Hope TA, Crook SE, Ordovas KG, Urbania TH, Alley MT, Higgins CB. 4D flow CMR in assessment of valve-related ascending aortic disease. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011;4(7):781–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hope MD, Meadows AK, Hope TA, Ordovas KG, Saloner D, Reddy GP, Alley MT, Higgins CB. Clinical evaluation of aortic coarctation with 4D flow MR imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2010;31(3):711–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Brix L, Ringgaard S, Rasmusson A, Sørensen TS, Kim WY. Three dimensional three component whole heart cardiovascular magnetic resonance velocity mapping: comparison of flow measurements from 3D and 2D acquisitions. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2009;11:3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hussain T, Lossnitzer D, Bellsham-Revell H, Valverde I, Beerbaum P, Razavi R, Bell AJ, Schaeffter T, Botnar RM, Uribe SA, Greil GF. Three-dimensional dual-phase whole-heart MR imaging: clinical implications for congenital heart disease. Radiology. 2012;263(2):547–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sundareswaran KS, Haggerty CM, de Zélicourt D, Dasi LP, Pekkan K, Frakes DH, Powell AJ, Kanter KR, Fogel MA, Yoganathan AP. Visualization of flow structures in Fontan patients using 3-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;143(5):1108–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Simonetti OP, Kim RJ, Fieno DS, Hillenbrand HB, Wu E, Bundy JM, Finn JP, Judd RM. An improved MR imaging technique for the visualization of myocardial infarction. Radiology. 2001;218(1):215–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kim RJ, Chen EL, Lima JA, Judd RM. Myocardial Gd-DTPA kinetics determine MRI contrast enhancement and reflect the extent and severity of myocardial injury after acute reperfused infarction. Circulation. 1996;94(12):3318–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kim RJ, Fieno DS, Parrish TB, Harris K, Chen EL, Simonetti O, Bundy J, Finn JP, Klocke FJ, Judd RM. Relationship of MRI delayed contrast enhancement to irreversible injury, infarct age, and contractile function. Circulation. 1999;100(19):1992–2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Choudhury L, Mahrholdt H, Wagner A, Choi KM, Elliott MD, Klocke FJ, Bonow RO, Judd RM, Kim RJ. Myocardial scarring in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40(12):2156–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Moon JC, Mogensen J, Elliott PM, Smith GC, Elkington AG, Prasad SK, Pennell DJ, McKenna WJ. Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mutations in troponin I. Heart. 2005;91(8):1036–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    McCrohon JA, Moon JC, Prasad SK, McKenna WJ, Lorenz CH, Coats AJ, Pennell DJ. Differentiation of heart failure related to dilated cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease using gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Circulation. 2003;108(1):54–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Patel MR, Cawley PJ, Heitner JF, Klem I, Parker MA, Jaroudi WA, Meine TJ, White JB, Elliott MD, Kim HW, Judd RM, Kim RJ. Detection of myocardial damage in patients with sarcoidosis. Circulation. 2009;120(20):1969–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Babu-Narayan SV, Goktekin O, Moon JC, Broberg CS, Pantely GA, Pennell DJ, Gatzoulis MA, Kilner PJ. Late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the systemic right ventricle in adults with previous atrial redirection surgery for transposition of the great arteries. Circulation. 2005;111(16):2091–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kim RJ, Shah DJ, Judd RM. How we perform delayed enhancement imaging. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2003;5:505–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Li W, Li BS, Polzin JA, Mai VM, Prasad PV, Edelman RR. Myocardial delayed enhancement imaging using inversion recovery single-shot steady-state free precession: initial experience. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2004;20(2):327–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sievers B, Elliott MD, Hurwitz LM, Albert TS, Klem I, Rehwald WG, Parker MA, Judd RM, Kim RJ. Rapid detection of myocardial infarction by subsecond, free-breathing delayed contrast-enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Circulation. 2007;115(2):236–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Weinsaft JW, Kim HW, Shah DJ, Klem I, Crowley AL, Brosnan R, James OG, Patel MR, Heitner J, Parker M, Velazquez EJ, Steenbergen C, Judd RM, Kim RJ. Detection of left ventricular thrombus by delayed-enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance prevalence and markers in patients with systolic dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52(2):148–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mollet NR, Dymarkowski S, Volders W, Wathiong J, Herbots L, Rademakers FE, Bogaert J. Visualization of ventricular thrombi with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with ischemic heart disease. Circulation. 2002;106(23):2873–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Coon PD, Rychik J, Novello RT, Ro PS, Gaynor JW, Spray TL. Thrombus formation after the Fontan operation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;71(6):1990–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Prakash A, Powell AJ, Krishnamurthy R, Geva T. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of myocardial perfusion and viability in congenital and acquired pediatric heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2004;93(5):657–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Harris MA, Johnson TR, Weinberg PM, Fogel MA. Delayed-enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance identifies fibrous tissue in children after surgery for congenital heart disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;133(3):676–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Oosterhof T, Mulder BJ, Vliegen HW, de Roos A. Corrected tetralogy of Fallot: delayed enhancement in right ventricular outflow tract. Radiology. 2005;237(3):868–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Babu-Narayan SV, Kilner PJ, Li W, Moon JC, Goktekin O, Davlouros PA, Khan M, Ho SY, Pennell DJ, Gatzoulis MA. Ventricular fibrosis suggested by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and its relationship to adverse markers of clinical outcome. Circulation. 2006;113(3):405–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wald RM, Haber I, Wald R, Valente AM, Powell AJ, Geva T. Effects of regional dysfunction and late gadolinium enhancement on global right ventricular function and exercise capacity in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Circulation. 2009;119(10):1370–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Park SJ, On YK, Kim JS, Park SW, Yang JH, Jun TG, Kang IS, Lee HJ, Choe YH, Huh J. Relation of fragmented QRS complex to right ventricular fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Cardiol. 2012;109(1):110–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Fratz S, Hauser M, Bengel FM, Hager A, Kaemmerer H. Myocardial scars determined by delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography are not common in right ventricles with systemic function in long-term follow up. Heart. 2006;92(11):1673–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Preim U, Hoffmann J, Lehmkuhl L, Kehrmann J, Riese F, Daehnert I, Kostelka M, Gutberlet M, Grothoff M. Systemic right ventricles rarely show myocardial scars in cardiac magnetic resonance delayed-enhancement imaging. Clin Res Cardiol. 2013;102(5):337–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hartke LP, Gilkeson RC, O’Riordan MA, Siwik ES. Evaluation of right ventricular fibrosis in adult congenital heart disease using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: initial experience in patients with right ventricular loading conditions. Congenit Heart Dis. 2006;1(5):192–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Giardini A, Lovato L, Donti A, Formigari R, Oppido G, Gargiulo G, Picchio FM, Fattori R. Relation between right ventricular structural alterations and markers of adverse clinical outcome in adults with systemic right ventricle and either congenital complete (after Senning operation) or congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. Am J Cardiol. 2006;98(9):1277–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rathod RH, Prakash A, Powell AJ, Geva T. Myocardial fibrosis identified by cardiac magnetic resonance late gadolinium enhancement is associated with adverse ventricular mechanics and ventricular tachycardia late after Fontan operation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(16):1721–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Robinson JD, Del Nido PJ, Geggel RL, Perez-Atayde AR, Lock JE, Powell AJ. Left ventricular diastolic heart failure in teenagers who underwent balloon aortic valvuloplasty in early infancy. Am J Cardiol. 2010;106(3):426–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    La Salvia EA, Gilkeson RC, Dahms BB, Siwik E. Delayed contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging in congenital aortic stenosis. Pediatr Cardiol. 2006;27(3):388–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wann LS, Faris JV, Childress RH, Dillon JC, Weyman AE, Feigenbaum H. Exercise cross-sectional echocardiography in ischemic heart disease. Circulation. 1979;60:1300–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Beller GA, Zaret BL. Contributions of nuclear cardiology to diagnosis and prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2000;101:1465–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Robbers-Visser D, Luijnenburg SE, van den Berg J, Moelker A, Helbing WA. Stress imaging in congenital cardiac disease. Cardiol Young. 2009;19(6):552–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Roest AA, Kunz P, Lamb HJ, Helbing WA, van der Wall EE, de Roos A. Biventricular response to supine physical exercise in young adults assessed with ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Cardiol. 2001;87:601–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Roest AA, Helbing WA, Kunz P, van den Aardweg JG, Lamb HJ, Vliegen HW, van der Wall EE, de Roos A. Exercise MR imaging in the assessment of pulmonary regurgitation and biventricular function in patients after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Radiology. 2002;223(1):204–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Pedersen EM, Stenbøg EV, Fründ T, Houlind K, Kromann O, Sørensen KE, Emmertsen K, Hjortdal VE. Flow during exercise in the total cavopulmonary connection measured by magnetic resonance velocity mapping. Heart. 2002;87(6):554–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Freed BH, Turner KM, Yodwut C, Tarroni G, Estep E, Bhave NM, Narang A, Tanaka S, Corsi C, Gayat E, Czobor P, Cavanaugh K, Lang R, Mor-Avi V, Patel AR. Regadenoson cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging predicts need for future revascularization [abstract]. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2012;14 Suppl 1:P7.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hendel RC, Bateman TM, Cerqueira MD, Iskandrian AE, Leppo JA, Blackburn B, Mahmarian JJ. Initial clinical experience with regadenoson, a novel selective A2A agonist for pharmacologic stress single-photon computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46:2069–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Al Jaroudi W, Iskandrian AE. Regadenoson: a new myocardial stress agent. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54:1123–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Greenwood JP, Younger JF, Brown JM, Everett CC, Bijsterveld P, Ridgway JP, Radjenovic A, Dickinson CJ, Ball SG, Plein S. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance and single-photon emission computed tomography for diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CE-MARC): a prospective trial. Lancet. 2012;379:453–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Nandalur KR, Dwamena BA, Choudhri AF, Nandalur MR, Carlos RC. Diagnostic performance of stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:1343–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Klem I, Heitner JF, Shah DJ, et al. Improved detection of coronary artery disease by stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance with the use of delayed enhancement infarction imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(8):1630–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Pilz G, Bernhardt P, Klos M, Ali E, Wild M, Hofling B. Clinical implication of adenosine-stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as potential gatekeeper to invasive examination in patients with AHA/ACC class II indication for coronary angiography. Clin Res Cardiol. 2006;95:531–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Plein S, Greenwood JP, Ridgway JP, Cranny G, Ball SG, Sivananthan MU. Assessment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:2173–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Plein S, Radjenovic A, Barmby D, Greenwood JP, Ball SG, Sivananthan MU. Coronary artery disease: myocardial perfusion MR imaging with sensitivity encoding versus conventional angiography. Radiology. 2005;235:423–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Schwitter J, Wacker CM, van Rossum AC, Lombardi M, Al-Saadi N, Ahlstrom H, Dill T, Larsson HBW, Flamm SD, Marquardt M, Johansson L. MR-IMPACT: comparison of perfusion-cardiac magnetic resonance with single-photon emission computed tomography for the detection of coronary artery disease in a multicentre, multivendor, randomized trial. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:480–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Wong DTL, Leung MCH, Das R, Liew GYH, Dundon BK, Molaee P, Teo KSL, Meredith IT, Worthley MI, Worthley SG. Diagnostic accuracy of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance following acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction post primary angioplasty. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2011;13:62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Paetsch I, Jahnke C, Wahl A, Gebker R, Neuss M, Fleck E, Nagel E. Comparison of dobutamine stress magnetic resonance, adenosine stress magnetic resonance, and adenosine stress magnetic resonance perfusion. Circulation. 2004;110:835–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hendel RC, Patel MR, Kramer CM, Poon M, Hendel RC, Carr JC, Gerstad NA, Gillam LD, Hodgson JM, Kim RJ, Kramer CM, Lesser JR, Martin ET, Messer JV, Redberg RF, Rubin GD, Rumsfeld JS, Taylor AJ, Weigold WG, Woodard PK, Brindis RG, Hendel RC, Douglas PS, Peterson ED, Wolk MJ, Allen JM, Patel MR, American College of Cardiology Foundation Quality Strategic Directions Committee Appropriateness Criteria Working Group; American College of Radiology; Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography; Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance; American Society of Nuclear Cardiology; North American Society for Cardiac Imaging; Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions; Society of Interventional Radiology. ACCF/ACR/SCCT/SCMR/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SIR 2006 appropriateness criteria for cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Quality Strategic Directions Committee Appropriateness Criteria Working Group, American College of Radiology, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, North American Society for Cardiac Imaging, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Interventional Radiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48(7):1475–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Grizzard JD, Ang GB. Magnetic resonance imaging of pericardial disease and cardiac masses. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2007;15(4):579–607, vi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Beroukhim RS, Prakash A, Buechel ER, Cava JR, Dorfman AL, Festa P, Hlavacek AM, Johnson TR, Keller MS, Krishnamurthy R, Misra N, Moniotte S, Parks WJ, Powell AJ, Soriano BD, Srichai MB, Yoo SJ, Zhou J, Geva T. Characterization of cardiac tumors in children by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: a multicenter experience. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(10):1044–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Roest AA, Lamb HJ, van der Wall EE, Vliegen HW, van den Aardweg JG, Kunz P, de Roos A, Helbing WA. Cardiovascular response to physical exercise in adult patients after atrial correction for transposition of the great arteries assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. Heart. 2004;90(6):678–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Tulevski II, Lee PL, Groenink M, van der Wall EE, Stoker J, Pieper PG, Romkes H, Hirsch A, Mulder BJ. Dobutamine-induced increase of right ventricular contractility without increased stroke volume in adolescent patients with transposition of the great arteries: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging. Int J Card Imaging. 2000;16(6):471–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Tulevski II, van der Wall EE, Groenink M, Dodge-Khatami A, Hirsch A, Stoker J, Mulder BJ. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging dobutamine stress in asymptomatic and minimally symptomatic patients with decreased cardiac reserve from congenital heart disease (complete and corrected transposition of the great arteries and subpulmonic obstruction). Am J Cardiol. 2002;89(9):1077–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Oosterhof T, Tulevski II, Roest AA, Steendijk P, Vliegen HW, van der Wall EE, de Roos A, Tijssen JG, Mulder BJ. Disparity between dobutamine stress and physical exercise magnetic resonance imaging in patients with an intra-atrial correction for transposition of the great arteries. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2005;7(2):383–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Fratz S, Hager A, Busch R, Kaemmerer H, Schwaiger M, Lange R, Hess J, Stern HC. Patients after atrial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries can not increase stroke volume under dobutamine stress as opposed to patients with congenitally corrected transposition. Circ J. 2008;72(7):1130–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Dodge-Khatami A, Tulevski II, Bennink GB, Hitchcock JF, de Mol BA, van der Wall EE, Mulder BJ. Comparable systemic ventricular function in healthy adults and patients with unoperated congenitally corrected transposition using MRI dobutamine stress testing. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73(6):1759–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Roest AA, de Roos A, Lamb HJ, Helbing WA, van den Aardweg JG, Doornbos J, van der Wall EE, Kunz P. Tetralogy of Fallot: postoperative delayed recovery of left ventricular stroke volume after physical exercise assessment with fast MR imaging. Radiology. 2003;226(1):278–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    van den Berg J, Strengers JL, Wielopolski PA, Hop WC, Meijboom FJ, de Rijke YB, Boomsma F, Bogers AJ, Pattynama PM, Helbing WA. Assessment of biventricular functional reserve and NT-proBNP levels in patients with RV volume overload after repair of tetralogy of Fallot at young age. Int J Cardiol. 2009;133(3):364–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Tulevski II, Hirsch A, Dodge-Khatami A, Stoker J, van der Wall EE, Mulder BJ. Effect of pulmonary valve regurgitation on right ventricular function in patients with chronic right ventricular pressure overload. Am J Cardiol. 2003;92(1):113–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Hjortdal VE, Christensen TD, Larsen SH, Emmertsen K, Pedersen EM. Caval blood flow during supine exercise in normal and Fontan patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85(2):599–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hjortdal VE, Emmertsen K, Stenbøg E, Fründ T, Schmidt MR, Kromann O, Sørensen K, Pedersen EM. Effects of exercise and respiration on blood flow in total cavopulmonary connection: a real-time magnetic resonance flow study. Circulation. 2003;108(10):1227–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Robbers-Visser D, Helderman F, Strengers JL, van Osch-Gevers L, Kapusta L, Pattynama PM, Bogers AJ, Krams R, Helbing WA. Pulmonary artery size and function after Fontan operation at a young age. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;28(5):1101–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Robbers-Visser D, Jan Ten Harkel D, Kapusta L, Strengers JL, Dalinghaus M, Meijboom FJ, Pattynama PM, Bogers AJ, Helbing WA. Usefulness of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging combined with low-dose dobutamine stress to detect an abnormal ventricular stress response in children and young adults after fontan operation at young age. Am J Cardiol. 2008;101(11):1657–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Schmitt B, Steendijk P, Ovroutski S, Lunze K, Rahmanzadeh P, Maarouf N, Ewert P, Berger F, Kuehne T. Pulmonary vascular resistance, collateral flow, and ventricular function in patients with a Fontan circulation at rest and during dobutamine stress. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3(5):623–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Taylor AM, Dymarkowski S, De Meerleer K, Hamaekers P, Gewillig M, Mertens L, Bogaert J. Validation and application of single breath-hold cine cardiac MR for ventricular function assessment in children with congenital heart disease at rest and during adenosine stress. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2005;7(5):743–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Strigl S, Beroukhim R, Valente AM, Annese D, Harrington JS, Geva T, Powell AJ. Feasibility of dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;29(2):313–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Cook SC, Ferketich AK, Raman SV. Myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic adults with repaired aortic coarctation. Int J Cardiol. 2009;133(1):95–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Buechel ER, Balmer C, Bauersfeld U, Kellenberger CJ, Schwitter J. Feasibility of perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance in paediatric patients. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2009;11:51.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of PediatricsDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations