Biotic Stress and Crop Improvement

  • Irada Huseynova
  • Nargiz Sultanova
  • Alamdar Mammadov
  • Saftar Suleymanov
  • Jalal A. Aliyev
Chapter

Abstract

Biotic stress is one of the major environmental factors affecting plants. Viruses, fungi, bacteria, weeds, insects, and other pests and pathogens represent a major constraint to agricultural productivity and a serious threat to vegetable and grain crops. Plant protection against pathogens and pests is a commercially important issue and one of the main directions of researches. Almost half of new infectious diseases identified in plants during the past 10 years have a viral nature. The number and distribution areas of some plant viruses in Europe have been increasing rapidly during the past 35 years that caused big problems from an economic point of view. Viral diseases have also become a real threat for different cultivars of vegetables, grains, and other agricultural crops in our country. It causes extensive leaf yellowing, stem and leaf deformation, reducing the fruit quality, substantial yield loss, and shortening the lifecycle of crops. The probable cause of decay of virus-infected plants is not only the virus activity itself but also reduced tolerance to unfavorable environmental conditions. The identification of the viruses affecting plants and the study of the plant responses are very important for the better understanding of the plant–virus interactions and for developing the tendency to reduce the plant virus-associated risks in Azerbaijan. Therefore, the main goal of the present study is to identify the most widespread plant viruses in Azerbaijan using different molecular techniques and to evaluate some characteristics of plant response to viral stress.

Keywords

Biotic stress Vegetable crops Virus infections ELISA assay RCA PCR Protein and chlorophyll content Thylakoid membrane polypeptides Antioxidant enzymes Photochemical activity Photosystem II Photosystem I Fluorescence ROS 

Abbreviations

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

CAT

Catalase

Chl

Chlorophyll

CP

Coat protein

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

F

Fluorescence

GR

Glutathione reductase

LHC

Light-harvesting complex

MV

Methyl viologen

ORF

Open reading frame

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PS

Photosystem

RCA

Rolling circle amplification

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

ssRNA

Single-stranded RNA

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by of the Science Development Foundation under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan (grant EIF-2011-1(3)-82/48/3).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irada Huseynova
    • 1
  • Nargiz Sultanova
    • 1
  • Alamdar Mammadov
    • 1
  • Saftar Suleymanov
    • 1
  • Jalal A. Aliyev
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of BotanyAzerbaijan National Academy of SciencesBakuAzerbaijan
  2. 2.Department of Plant Physiology and BiotechnologyResearch Institute of Crop Husbandry, Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of AzerbaijanBakuAzerbaijan

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