Advertisement

Economic Resources

  • Ami C. Carpenter
Chapter
Part of the Peace Psychology Book Series book series (PPBS)

Abstract

This chapter draws on a range of research relating to the relationship between economic resources, group mobilization and civil war. Economic aspects of resilience varied across Baghdad neighborhoods, contributing to the overall resilience or vulnerability of particular places to extremist violence. This chapter discusses socioeconomic status (SES) as a composite of education, occupation, and income. While the links between poverty and community resilience are obscure, high SES may have positive effect on people’s capacity to act in innovative ways, on ability to access and attract resources, and on individual resilience to sectarian recruitment.

Keywords

Economic resources Economic development SES Resilience Vulnerability Civil war Poverty Social class Access to resources Well-being Human development Freedom Psychological changes Psychosocial vulnerability De’Baathification Protection narrative Rule of relative advantage Tribal networks Trade networks Criminal networks 

References

  1. 1.
    Todaro, Michael. 2011. Economic Development. Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tejesen, S.A. 2004. Amartya Sen’s development as freedom. Graduate Journal of Social Science 1(2): 344–347.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Norris, F.H., S.P. Stevens, B. Pfefferbaum, K.F. Wyce, and R. Pfefferbaum. 2008. Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities and strategy for disaster readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology 41: 137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahern, J., and S. Galea. 2006. Social context and depression after a disaster: The role of income inequality. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60: 766–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schneckener, U. 2006. Fragile statehood, armed non-state actors and security governance. In Private actors and security governance, ed. A. Bryden, and M. Caparini. Zurich: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Braveman, P., Cubbin. C., Marchi, K., Egerter, S., and Chavez, G. 2001. Measuring socioeconomic status/position in studies of Racial/Ethnic disparities: Maternal and infant health. Public Health Reports 116. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497365/pdf/12042609.pdf.
  7. 7.
    Higgs, N. 2002. Measuring Socio-Economic Status: A DiscussionLetting the Gini out of the Bottleplus Some Thoughts on Well-Being.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Langridge, R., Christian-Smith, J, and Lohse, K.A. 2006. Access and resilience: A nalyzing the construction of social resilience to the threat of water scarcity. Ecology and Society 11(2): 18. Retrieved from http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss2/art18/.
  9. 9.
    Elbadawi, I. 1999. Civil wars and poverty: the role of external interventions, political rights and economic growth. Mimeo.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Henderson, E., and Singer, J.D. 2000. Civil War in the Post-Colonial World 1946-1992. Journal of Peace Research 37(3): 275–299 (International Peace Research Institute, Oslo).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hegre, H., Ellingsen, T., Gates, S, and Gleditsch, N.P. (2001) Toward a democratic civil peace? Democracy, political change and civil war, American Political Science Review 95 (1):33–48.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Collier, P., and A. Hoeffler. 1998. On economic causes of civil war. Oxford Economic Papers 50(4): 563–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Collier, P. (2000). Doing well out of war: An economic perspective. In Greed and Grievance: Economic agendas in Civil Wars, eds. Berdal, M., and Malone, D.M, 91–112.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Keen, D. 1998. The economic functions of violence in Civil Wars. New York: Oxford University Press (Adelphi Paper 320).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Humphreys, M., and Weinstein, J. 2004. What the Fighters Say: A Survey of Ex-Combatants in Sierra Leone. CGSD Working Paper no. 20, Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development. New York: The Earth Institute at Columbia University.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gibbs, J.T. (1984). Black adolescents and youth: An endangered species. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 54: 6–21.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lorion, R.L., Brodsky, A., and Cooley-Quille, M.R. (1999). Exposure to urban violence: A framework for conceptualizing risky settings. In Innovations in practice and service delivery across the lifespan, eds. Biegel, D.E., and Blum, A., 124–143. New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Myers, H.F., S. Taylor, K.T. Alvy, A. Arrington, and M.A. Richardson. 1992. Parental and family predictors of behavior problems in inner-city Black children. American Journal of Community Psychology 20: 557–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Osofsky, J.D., S. Werers, D.M. Hann, and A.C. Fick. 1993. Chronic community violence: What is happening to our children? Psychiatry 56: 36–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Singer, M., T. Anglin, L. Song, and L. Lunghofer. 1995. Adolescents’ exposure to violence and associated symptoms of psychological trauma. Journal of the American Medical Association 273: 477–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    DeYoung, K., and Pincus, W. 2007. Al-Qaeda in Iraq May Not Be the Threat Here. Washington Post, Sunday March 18, 2007.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haddad, F. 2013. Iraq’s Sectarian Inheritance. Foreign Policy: Middle East Channel.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Langridge, R., Christian-Smith, J., and Lohse, K.A. 2006. Access and resilience: analyzing the construction of social resilience to the threat of water scarcity. Ecology and Society 11(2): 18. Retrieved from http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss2/art18/.
  24. 24.
    Kaniasty, K., and Norris, F. 2004. Social support in the aftermath of disasters, catastrophes, acts of terrorism: Altruistic, overwhelmed, uncertain, antagonistic, and patriotic communities. In Bioterrorism: Psychological and public health interventions, eds. Ursano, R., Norwood, A., and Fullerton, C., 200–229. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Williams, Philip. 2009. Criminals, militias and insurgents: Organized crime in Iraq. Strategic Studies Institute.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nelson, J.M. 1998. Poverty, inequality, and conflict in developing countries. Rockefeller Brothers Fund Project on World Security.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Joan B. Kroc School of Peace StudiesUniversity of San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations