Anesthetic Considerations: Open Versus Minimally Invasive Surgery



The ability to provide appropriate anesthesia care for the patient undergoing radical prostatectomy, whether as an open procedure or with a laparoscopy approach with or without robotic assistance relies on a thorough preoperative evaluation. The American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) has published guidelines for preoperative evaluation. These guidelines however are recommendations and should be adapted to the patient’s individual needs. In the case of the cardiac patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery the American College of Cardiology (ACC) has published guidelines to help manage the patient in the preoperative period. Individual needs of the patient must also be considered and special concerns relating to the surgical procedure itself such as an open procedure versus a closed approach, the position of the patient during surgery, the length of the surgery, and complications associated with each particular procedure needs to be taken into consideration for each individual patient. The risks and concerns are addressed with the patient at the time of preoperative evaluation.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Obstructive Sleep Apnea Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure Peak Airway Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Cima RR, Lackore KA, Nehring SA, Cassivi SD, Donohue JH, Deschamps C, et al. How best to measure surgical quality? Comparison of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators (AHRQ-PSI) and the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) postoperative adverse events at a single institution. Surgery. 2011;150(5):943–9. PubMed PMID: 21875734.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Figueroa AJ, Stein JP, Dickinson M, Skinner EC, Thangathurai D, Mikhail MS, et al. Radical cystectomy for elderly patients with bladder carcinoma: an updated experience with 404 patients. Cancer. 1998;83(1):141–7. PubMed PMID: 9655304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Trinh QD, Sammon J, Sun M, Ravi P, Ghani KR, Bianchi M, et al. Perioperative outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy compared with open radical prostatectomy: results from the nationwide inpatient sample. Eur Urol. 2012;61(4):679–85. PubMed PMID: 22206800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grewal K, Wijeysundera DN, Carroll J, Tait G, Beattie WS. Gender differences in mortality following non-cardiovascular surgery: an observational study. Can J Anaesth. 2012;59(3):255–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maddox TM. Preoperative cardiovascular evaluation for noncardiac surgery. Mt Sinai J Med. 2005;72(3):185–92. PubMed PMID: 15915313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Halachmi S, Katz Y, Meretyk S, Barak M. Perioperative morbidity and mortality in 80 years and older undergoing elective urology surgery - a prospective study. Aging Male. 2008;11(4):162–6. PubMed PMID: 19172546.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Froehner M, Hentschel C, Koch R, Litz RJ, Hakenberg OW, Wirth MP. Which comorbidity classification best fits elderly candidates for radical prostatectomy? Urol Oncol. 2013;31(4):461–7. PubMed PMID: 21498089.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Djokovic JL, Hedley-Whyte J. Prediction of outcome of surgery and anesthesia in patients over 80. JAMA. 1979;242(21):2301–6. PubMed PMID: 490827.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Miller RD. Miller’s anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2010.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hightower CE, Riedel BJ, Feig BW, Morris GS, Ensor Jr JE, Woodruff VD, et al. A pilot study evaluating predictors of postoperative outcomes after major abdominal surgery: physiological capacity compared with the ASA physical status classification system. Br J Anaesth. 2010;104(4):465–71. PubMed PMID: 20190255. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2837548.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Owens WDMD, Felts JAMD, Spitznagel ELJPD. ASA physical status classifications: a study of consistency of ratings. Anesthesiology. 1978;49:239–43. (0003–3022). PubMed PMID: 00000542-197810000-00003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fitz-Henry J. The ASA, classification and peri-operative risk. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2011;93(3):185–7. PubMed PMID: 21477427. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3348554.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saklad MMD. Grading of patients for surgical procedures. Anesthesiology. 1941;2(0003–3022):281–3. PubMed PMID: 00000542-194105000-00004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dripps R. New classification of physical status. Anesthesiology. 1963;24:111.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Daabiss M. American society of anaesthesiologists physical status classification. Ind J Anaesth. 2011;55(2):111–5. PubMed PMID: 21712864. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3106380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thomas M, George NA, Gowri BP, George PS, Sebastian P. Comparative evaluation of ASA classification and ACE-27 index as morbidity scoring systems in oncosurgeries. Indian J Anaesth. 2010;54(3):219–25. PubMed PMID: 20885868. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2933480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McGuirt JK. Goldman criteria of cardiac risk for noncardiac surgery. Am J Cardiol. 1994;74(3):307. PubMed PMID: 8037150.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Arora V, Velanovich V, Alarcon W. Preoperative assessment of cardiac risk and perioperative cardiac management in noncardiac surgery. Int J Surg. 2011;9(1):23–8. PubMed PMID: 20934543.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fleisher LA, Beckman JA, Brown KA, Calkins H, Chaikof E, Fleischmann KE, et al. ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and care for noncardiac surgery: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery): developed in collaboration with the American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, and Society for Vascular Surgery. Circulation. 2007;116(17):1971–96. PubMed PMID: 17901356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Froehlich JB, Fleisher LA. Noncardiac surgery in the patient with heart disease. Anesthesiol Clin. 2009;27(4):649–71. PubMed PMID: 19942172.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Iglesias JF, Sierro C, Aebischer N, Vogt P, Eeckhout E. [Preoperative cardiac assessment before non-cardiac surgery: cardiac risk stratification]. Rev Med Suisse. 2010;6(251):1110–4, 6. PubMed PMID: 20572353. Evaluation cardiologique preoperatoire avant chirurgie non cardiaque: stratification du risque cardiovasculaire.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hollenberg M, Mangano DT, Browner WS, London MJ, Tubau JF, Tateo IM. Predictors of postoperative myocardial ischemia in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. The Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. JAMA. 1992;268(2):205–9. PubMed PMID: 1535109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eagle KA, Berger PB, Calkins H, Chaitman BR, Ewy GA, Fleischmann KE, et al. ACC/AHA Guideline Update for perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery—Executive Summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to update the 1996 guidelines on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation for noncardiac surgery). Anesth Analg. 2002;94(5):1052–64. PubMed PMID: 11973163.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mangano DT, Browner WS, Hollenberg M, Li J, Tateo IM. Long-term cardiac prognosis following noncardiac surgery. The Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. JAMA. 1992;268(2):233–9. PubMed PMID: 1608143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kheterpal S, O’Reilly M, Englesbe MJ, Rosenberg AL, Shanks AM, Zhang L, et al. Preoperative and intraoperative predictors of cardiac adverse events after general, vascular, and urological surgery. Anesthesiology. 2009;110(1):58–66. PubMed PMID: 19104171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eagle KA, Rihal CS, Mickel MC, Holmes DR, Foster ED, Gersh BJ. Cardiac risk of noncardiac surgery: influence of coronary disease and type of surgery in 3368 operations. CASS Investigators and University of Michigan Heart Care Program. Coronary Artery Surgery Study. Circulation. 1997;96(6):1882–7. PubMed PMID: 9323076.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dindo D, Muller MK, Weber M, Clavien PA. Obesity in general elective surgery. Lancet. 2003;361(9374):2032–5. PubMed PMID: 12814714.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barash PG. Handbook of clinical anesthesia. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. xiv, p 1180.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Heys SD, Ogston KN. Peri-operative nutritional support: controversies and debates. Int J Surg Investig. 2000;2(2):107–15. PubMed PMID: 12678508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McClave SA, Snider HL, Spain DA. Preoperative issues in clinical nutrition. Chest. 1999;115(5 Suppl):64S–70. PubMed PMID: 10331336.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Francon D, Chambrier C, Sztark F. Nutritional assessment of patients before surgery. Ann Fr Anesth Réanim. 2012;31(6):506–11. PubMed PMID: 22483754. Evaluation nutritionnelle a la consultation d'anesthesie.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shapiro M. Perioperative prophylactic use of antibiotics in surgery: principles and practice. Infect Control. 1982;3(1):38–40. PubMed PMID: 6915901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Matsumoto M, Shigemura K, Yamamichi F, Tanaka K, Nakano Y, Arakawa S, et al. Prevention of infectious complication and its risk factors after urological procedures of the upper urinary tract. Urol Int. 2012;88(1):43–7. PubMed PMID: 22005053.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wilson SE, Turpin RS, Kumar RN, Itani KM, Jensen EH, Pellissier JM, et al. Comparative costs of ertapenem and cefotetan as prophylaxis for elective colorectal surgery. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2008;9(3):349–56. PubMed PMID: 18570576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ho VP, Barie PS, Stein SL, Trencheva K, Milsom JW, Lee SW, et al. Antibiotic regimen and the timing of prophylaxis are important for reducing surgical site infection after elective abdominal colorectal surgery. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2011;12(4):255–60. PubMed PMID: 21790479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grabe M, Botto H, Cek M, Tenke P, Wagenlehner FM, Naber KG, et al. Preoperative assessment of the patient and risk factors for infectious complications and tentative classification of surgical field contamination of urological procedures. World J Urol. 2012;30(1):39–50. PubMed PMID: 21779836.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Reynolds MW, Fahrbach K, Hauch O, Wygant G, Estok R, Cella C, et al. Warfarin anticoagulation and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest. 2004;126(6):1938–45. PubMed PMID: 15596696.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ansell J, Hirsh J, Poller L, Bussey H, Jacobson A, Hylek E. The pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest. 2004;126(3 Suppl):204S–33. PubMed PMID: 15383473.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eerenberg ES, Kamphuisen PW, Sijpkens MK, Meijers JC, Buller HR, Levi M. Reversal of rivaroxaban and dabigatran by prothrombin complex concentrate: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects. Circulation. 2011;124(14):1573–9. PubMed PMID: 21900088.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Turpie AG, Bauer KA, Eriksson BI, Lassen MR. Fondaparinux vs enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in major orthopedic surgery: a meta-analysis of 4 randomized double-blind studies. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(16):1833–40. PubMed PMID: 12196081.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Turpie AG, Bauer KA, Caprini JA, Comp PC, Gent M, Muntz JE, et al. Fondaparinux combined with intermittent pneumatic compression vs. intermittent pneumatic compression alone for prevention of venous thromboembolism after abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind comparison. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5(9):1854–61. PubMed PMID: 17723125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Peters RJ, Joyner C, Bassand JP, Afzal R, Chrolavicius S, Mehta SR, et al. The role of fondaparinux as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction: a subgroup analysis of the OASIS-6 trial. Eur Heart J. 2008;29(3):324–31. PubMed PMID: 18245119.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cella G, Girolami A, Sasahara AA. Platelet activation with unfractionated heparin at therapeutic concentrations and comparison with low-molecular-weight heparin and with a direct thrombin inhibitor. Circulation. 1999;99(25):3323. PubMed PMID: 10385510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lepic K, Crowther M. New anticoagulants for the prevention of thromboembolism. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16(31):3472–4. PubMed PMID: 20858184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Weitz JI, Bates SM. New anticoagulants. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3(8):1843–53. PubMed PMID: 16102051.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Douketis JD, Berger PB, Dunn AS, Jaffer AK, Spyropoulos AC, Becker RC, et al. The perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest. 2008;133(6 Suppl):299S–339. PubMed PMID: 18574269.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stangier J, Rathgen K, Stahle H, Gansser D, Roth W. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability of dabigatran etexilate, a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor, in healthy male subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;64(3):292–303. PubMed PMID: 17506785. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2000643.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Di Nisio M, Middeldorp S, Buller HR. Direct thrombin inhibitors. New Engl J Med. 2005;353(10):1028–40. PubMed PMID: 16148288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kubitza D, Haas S. Novel factor Xa inhibitors for prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006;15(8):843–55. PubMed PMID: 16859389.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fifth Organization to Assess Strategies in Acute Ischemic Syndromes Investigators, Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, Afzal R, Pogue J, et al. Comparison of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(14):1464–76. PubMed PMID: 16537663.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bates SM, Weitz JI. The status of new anticoagulants. Br J Haematol. 2006;134(1):3–19. PubMed PMID: 16803562.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kaplan EB, Sheiner LB, Boeckmann AJ, Roizen MF, Beal SL, Cohen SN, et al. The usefulness of preoperative laboratory screening. JAMA. 1985;253(24):3576–81. PubMed PMID: 3999339.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Narr BJ, Hansen TR, Warner MA. Preoperative laboratory screening in healthy Mayo patients: cost-effective elimination of tests and unchanged outcomes. Mayo Clin Proc. 1991;66(2):155–9. PubMed PMID: 1899710.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Macpherson DS, Snow R, Lofgren RP. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113(12):969–73. PubMed PMID: 2240920.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Smetana GW, Macpherson DS. The case against routine preoperative laboratory testing. Med Clin North Am. 2003;87(1):7–40. PubMed PMID: 12575882.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Turnbull JM, Buck C. The value of preoperative screening investigations in otherwise healthy individuals. Arch Int Med. 1987;147(6):1101–5. PubMed PMID: 3592875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Narr BJ, Warner ME, Schroeder DR, Warner MA. Outcomes of patients with no laboratory assessment before anesthesia and a surgical procedure. Mayo Clin Proc. 1997;72(6):505–9. PubMed PMID: 9179133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gardner TA, Bissonette EA, Petroni GR, McClain R, Sokoloff MH, Theodorescu D. Surgical and postoperative factors affecting length of hospital stay after radical prostatectomy. Cancer. 2000;89(2):424–30. PubMed PMID: 10918175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gainsburg DM, Wax D, Reich DL, Carlucci JR, Samadi DB. Intraoperative management of robotic-assisted versus open radical prostatectomy. JSLS. 2010;14(1):1–5. PubMed PMID: 20529522. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3021297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    D’Alonzo RC, Gan TJ, Moul JW, Albala DM, Polascik TJ, Robertson CN, et al. A retrospective comparison of anesthetic management of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy versus radical retropubic prostatectomy. J Clin Anesth. 2009;21(5):322–8. PubMed PMID: 19700296.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Biki B, Mascha E, Moriarty DC, Fitzpatrick JM, Sessler DI, Buggy DJ. Anesthetic technique for radical prostatectomy surgery affects cancer recurrence: a retrospective analysis. Anesthesiology. 2008;109(2):180–7. PubMed PMID: 18648226.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Liu SS, Wu CL. The effect of analgesic technique on postoperative patient-reported outcomes including analgesia: a systematic review. Anesth Analg. 2007;105(3):789–808. PubMed PMID: 17717242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bhandari A, Mc Intire L, Kaul SA, Hemal AK, Peabody JO, Menon M. Perioperative complications of robotic radical prostatectomy after the learning curve. J Urol. 2005;174(3):915–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ead DN, Koch M, Smith JA. Is invasive anesthetic monitoring necessary during radical prostatectomy? Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 1999;2(5/6):282–4. PubMed PMID: 12497175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Piegeler T, Dreessen P, Schläpfer M, Schmid DM, Beck-Schimmer B. Impact of intraoperative fluid management on outcome in patients undergoing robotic‐assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy ‐ a retrospective analysis: 6AP1‐6. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011;28:81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kalmar AF, Dewaele F, Foubert L, Hendrickx JF, Heeremans EH, Struys MM, et al. Cerebral haemodynamic physiology during steep Trendelenburg position and CO(2) pneumoperitoneum. Br J Anaesth. 2012;108(3):478–84. PubMed PMID: 22258202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Park EY, Koo BN, Min KT, Nam SH. The effect of pneumoperitoneum in the steep Trendelenburg position on cerebral oxygenation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53(7):895–9. PubMed PMID: 19426238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lestar M, Gunnarsson L, Lagerstrand L, Wiklund P, Odeberg-Wernerman S. Hemodynamic perturbations during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in 45 degrees Trendelenburg position. Anesth Analg. 2011;113(5):1069–75. PubMed PMID: 21233502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Choi EM, Na S, Choi SH, An J, Rha KH, Oh YJ. Comparison of volume-controlled and pressure-controlled ventilation in steep Trendelenburg position for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. J Clin Anesth. 2011;23(3):183–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hong JY, Oh YJ, Rha KH, Park WS, Kim YS, Kil HK. Pulmonary edema after da Vinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a case report. J Clin Anesth. 2010;22(5):370–2. PubMed PMID: 20650386.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Meininger D, Zwissler B, Byhahn C, Probst M, Westphal K, Bremerich DH. Impact of overweight and pneumoperitoneum on hemodynamics and oxygenation during prolonged laparoscopic surgery. World J Surg. 2006;30(4):520–6. PubMed PMID: 16568232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schrijvers D, Mottrie A, Traen K, De Wolf AM, Vandermeersch E, Kalmar AF, et al. Pulmonary gas exchange is well preserved during robot assisted surgery in steep Trendelenburg position. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 2009;60(4):229–33. PubMed PMID: 20187485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fuller A, Pautler SE. Complications following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in a prospective Canadian cohort of 305 consecutive cases. Can Urol Assoc J. 2012;2:1–6.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chatti C, Corsia G, Yates DR, Vaessen C, Bitker MO, Coriat P, et al. Prevention of complications of general anesthesia linked with laparoscopic access and with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Prog Urol. 2011;21(12):829–34. PubMed PMID: 22035907. Complications de l'anesthesie generale inherentes a la voie laparoscopique et a la prostatectomie totale robot-assistee.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hong JY, Kim JY, Choi YD, Rha KH, Yoon SJ, Kil HK. Incidence of venous gas embolism during robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is lower than that during radical retropubic prostatectomy. Br J Anaesth. 2010;105(6):777–81. PubMed PMID: 20880950.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Park EY, Kwon JY, Kim KJ. Carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery. Yonsei Med J. 2012;53(3):459–66. PubMed PMID: 22476987. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3343430.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hewer CL. The physiology and complications of the Trendelenburg position. Can Med Assoc J. 1956;74(4):285–8. PubMed PMID: 13293598. Pubmed Central PMCID: 1824068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Berg KT, Harrison AR, Lee MS. Perioperative visual loss in ocular and nonocular surgery. Clin Ophthalmol. 2010;4:531–46. PubMed PMID: 20596508. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2893763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Roth S. Perioperative visual loss: what do we know, what can we do? Br J Anaesth. 2009;103 Suppl 1:i31–40. PubMed PMID: 20007988. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2791856.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Awad H, Santilli S, Ohr M, Roth A, Yan W, Fernandez S, et al. The effects of steep trendelenburg positioning on intraocular pressure during robotic radical prostatectomy. Anesth Analg. 2009;109(2):473–8. PubMed PMID: 19608821.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Koc G, Tazeh NN, Joudi FN, Winfield HN, Tracy CR, Brown JA. Lower extremity neuropathies after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy on a split-leg table. J Endourol. 2012;26(8):1026–9. PubMed PMID: 22515378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ankichetty S, Angle P, Margarido C, Halpern SH. Case report: rhabdomyolysis in morbidly obese patients: anesthetic considerations. Can J Anaesth. 2012. PubMed PMID: 23161100. Presentation de cas: rhabdomyolyse chez les patients obeses morbides: considerations anesthesiques.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Galyon SW, Richards KA, Pettus JA, Bodin SG. Three-limb compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis after robotic cystoprostatectomy. J Clin Anesth. 2011;23(1):75–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Filippou DK, Triga A, Rizos S, Grigoriadis E, Shipkov CD, Nissiotis AS. Electrocardiographic changes after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Folia Med. 2004;46(4):37–41. PubMed PMID: 15962814.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Aust H, Eberhart LH, Kranke P, Arndt C, Bleimuller C, Zoremba M, et al. [Hypoxemia after general anesthesia]. Anaesthesist. 2012;61(4):299–309. PubMed PMID: 22526741. Hypoxamie nach Allgemeinanasthesie.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Scott B. Airway management in post anaesthetic care. J Perioper Pract. 2012;22(4):135–8. PubMed PMID: 22567765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Tinsley MH, Barone CP. Preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting: refresh your knowledge of how to recognize and respond to this common complication. Plast Surg Nurs. 2012;32(3):106–11. PubMed PMID: 22929197.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anesthesiology and Critical CareMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weil Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations