Atomic and Molecular Oscillators

  • F. G. Major


Studies of radiation in the microwave region of the spectrum really became possible through what amounted to a crash program during World War II to develop the technology necessary to support the new invention: RADAR. Radiation laboratories sprang up at a number of universities in the USA, notably at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and elsewhere. Before the war, a microwave generator called a magnetron had been invented which later evolved into the resonator cavity magnetron, a powerful microwave oscillator used in RADAR during the war. Of course now magnetrons are in every home in the industrialized world; they power the microwave ovens. Just prior to the start of the war in Europe in 1939, two brothers by the name of Varian invented at Stanford University a microwave tube called a klystron which was tunable and produced a stable output of microwaves with wavelengths ranging from millimeters to several centimeters. Incidentally the same Varian brothers developed the sputter-ion pump that made the achievement of ultrahigh vacuum universally available on a large scale, for example, in space simulators at NASA, or large particle accelerators.


Atomic Beam Microwave Field Allan Variance Microwave Cavity Atomic Flux 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. G. Major
    • 1
  1. 1.Severna ParkUSA

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