Principles of Ultrasound

  • Jeanne Choi Rosen
  • Lesli Nicolay
  • Jeffrey S. Palmer


Ultrasound is the most common and first-line imaging study performed in the genitourinary tract in children. It is used for screening and monitoring children even before birth. We provide a primer for the reader to understand the pertinent physics of ultrasonography by reviewing the physical properties of sound waves and their ability to capture images. Artifacts created by these physical properties are sometimes of diagnostic utility. The indications for performing ultrasound studies are described followed by a discussion of the technique and expected finding of normal ultrasound studies of the kidney, bladder, and testis in children.


Sound Wave Grayscale Image Ultrasound Wave Array Probe Wave Beam 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanne Choi Rosen
    • 1
  • Lesli Nicolay
    • 2
  • Jeffrey S. Palmer
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cohen Children’s HospitalNorth Shore Long Island Jewish Medical CenterNew Hyde ParkUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric Urology, Department of UrologyLoma Linda University Medical CenterLoma LindaUSA
  3. 3.Pediatric and Adolescent Urology InstituteClevelandUSA

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