Advertisement

Principles of Ultrasound

  • Jeanne Choi Rosen
  • Lesli Nicolay
  • Jeffrey S. Palmer
Chapter

Abstract

Ultrasound is the most common and first-line imaging study performed in the genitourinary tract in children. It is used for screening and monitoring children even before birth. We provide a primer for the reader to understand the pertinent physics of ultrasonography by reviewing the physical properties of sound waves and their ability to capture images. Artifacts created by these physical properties are sometimes of diagnostic utility. The indications for performing ultrasound studies are described followed by a discussion of the technique and expected finding of normal ultrasound studies of the kidney, bladder, and testis in children.

Keywords

Sound Wave Grayscale Image Ultrasound Wave Array Probe Wave Beam 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Sanders RC. Clinical sonography: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston: Little Brown and Company; 1991.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Whittingham TA. Medical diagnostic applications and sources. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2007;93:84–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Siegel M. Pediatric sonography. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams &Wilkins; 2002.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hangiandreou N. B mode US: basic concepts and new technology. Radiographics. 2003;23:1019–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gilbert BR. Office scrotal ultrasound. Part I: ultrasound anatomy, physical principles and ultrasound safety. AUA Update Ser. 2008;27(1):1–7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Levitov A, Levitov A. Chapter 2. Physics of sound, ultrasound and Doppler effect and its diagnostic utility. In: Levitov A, Mayo P, Slonim AD, editors. Critical care ultrasonography. New York: McGraw Hill; 2009.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boote E. Doppler US techniques: concepts of blood flow detection and flow dynamics. Radiographics. 2003;23:1315–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brannigan M, Burns P, Wilson S. Blood flow patterns in focal liver lesions at microbubble-enhanced US. Radiographics. 2004;24:921–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Darge K. Voiding urosonography with ultrasound contrast agents for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38(1):40–53.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanne Choi Rosen
    • 1
  • Lesli Nicolay
    • 2
  • Jeffrey S. Palmer
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cohen Children’s HospitalNorth Shore Long Island Jewish Medical CenterNew Hyde ParkUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric Urology, Department of UrologyLoma Linda University Medical CenterLoma LindaUSA
  3. 3.Pediatric and Adolescent Urology InstituteClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations