Principles of Ultrasound
Ultrasound is the most common and first-line imaging study performed in the genitourinary tract in children. It is used for screening and monitoring children even before birth. We provide a primer for the reader to understand the pertinent physics of ultrasonography by reviewing the physical properties of sound waves and their ability to capture images. Artifacts created by these physical properties are sometimes of diagnostic utility. The indications for performing ultrasound studies are described followed by a discussion of the technique and expected finding of normal ultrasound studies of the kidney, bladder, and testis in children.
KeywordsSound Wave Grayscale Image Ultrasound Wave Array Probe Wave Beam
- 1.Sanders RC. Clinical sonography: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston: Little Brown and Company; 1991.Google Scholar
- 3.Siegel M. Pediatric sonography. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams &Wilkins; 2002.Google Scholar
- 5.Gilbert BR. Office scrotal ultrasound. Part I: ultrasound anatomy, physical principles and ultrasound safety. AUA Update Ser. 2008;27(1):1–7.Google Scholar
- 6.Levitov A, Levitov A. Chapter 2. Physics of sound, ultrasound and Doppler effect and its diagnostic utility. In: Levitov A, Mayo P, Slonim AD, editors. Critical care ultrasonography. New York: McGraw Hill; 2009.Google Scholar