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Adrenal Gland Imaging

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Pediatric and Adolescent Urologic Imaging

Abstract

The normal anatomy, physiology, and embryology of the adrenal glands is discussed. We then describe the use of ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for normal adrenal imaging followed by a discussion of anomalies of adrenal shape, position, and size (including adrenal hyperplasia). Imaging characteristics of adrenal masses are presented including adrenal hemorrhage, medullary neoplasms (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma, pheochromocytoma), adrenocortical neoplasms (adenoma, carcinoma), and other adrenal masses (leiomyoma, myolipoma). Finally adrenal cysts and abscesses are then described.

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Abbreviations

ACTH:

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

AIDS:

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

CAH:

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

CT:

Computed tomography

DOPA:

Dihydroxyphenylalanine

EBV:

Epstein-Barr virus

FDG:

Fluorodeoxyglucose

HVA:

Homovanillic acid

INSS:

International Neuroblastoma Staging System

MDP:

Methylene diphosphonate

MEN:

Multiple endocrine neoplasia

MIBG:

Metaiodobenzylguanidine

MR:

Magnetic resonance imaging

17-OHP:

17-hydroxyprogesterone

PET:

Positron emission tomography

US:

Ultrasonography

VIP:

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

VMA:

Vanillylmandelic acid

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Acknowledgement

Ellen C. Benya, MD, Department of Medical Imaging, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago for her assistance with radiological images

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Correspondence to Earl Y. Cheng MD .

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Casey, J.T., Cheng, E.Y., Donaldson, J.S. (2014). Adrenal Gland Imaging. In: Palmer, L., Palmer, J. (eds) Pediatric and Adolescent Urologic Imaging. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8654-1_16

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