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Biophysical Approaches to Understanding the Action of Myosin as a Molecular Machine

  • Mihály KovácsEmail author
  • András Málnási-Csizmadia
Chapter
Part of the Biophysics for the Life Sciences book series (BIOPHYS, volume 6)

Abstract

Many of the concepts of biological structure–function relationships were pioneered in muscle research, resulting in mechanistic knowledge spanning from molecular actions to macroscopic phenomena. Due to its abundance and spatial organization, the actomyosin system powering muscle contraction could readily be investigated by a wide variety of biophysical methods, and also provided fertile ground for the development of these techniques. For decades, muscle actomyosin was the only known biological motor system. It was later discovered that muscle contraction represents a highly specialized form of actomyosin-based contractility. All eukaryotic cells express a variety of myosin isoforms, which drive cellular processes including cell division, differentiation, movement, intracellular transport, and exo- and endocytosis. In this chapter we discuss how various biophysical methods have been used to elucidate the structural and functional properties of the actomyosin system and the physiological processes driven by its motor activity. We provide an overview of techniques applied to study molecular and supramolecular features of diverse myosin motors including their structure, kinetics, conformational transitions, force generation, assembly, cooperation, regulation, and the linkage of these properties to cellular and physiological functions.

Keywords

Myosin Actin Structure Kinetics Mechanism Muscle Energy transduction ATP ATPase Cytoskeleton Method Enzyme Activation Allostery Motility Molecular motors 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Work in MK’s lab is supported by the Human Frontier Science Program (RGY0072/2010) and the “Momentum” Program of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (LP2011-006/2011). MK is a Bolyai Fellow of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Work in AMC’s lab is supported by the European Research Council (European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/European Research Council grant agreement no. 208319), the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS-ELTE research group ID: 01055), the European Union in collaboration with the European Social Fund (grant agreement no. TAMOP-4.2.1/B-09/1/KMR), the National Office for Research and Technology, and the European Union (European Regional Development Fund), under the sponsorship of the National Technology Programme (NTP TECH_08_A1/2-2008-0106). We thank Kata Sarlós, Zoltán Simon, and Zhenhui Yang for figure preparation.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryEötvös Loránd University-Hungarian Academy of Sciences “Momentum” Motor Enzymology Research Group, Eötvös Loránd UniversityBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryEötvös Loránd University-Hungarian Academy of Sciences Molecular Biophysics Research Group, Eötvös Loránd UniversityBudapestHungary

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