Advertisement

Biological Augmentation of Meniscus Repair and Restoration

  • Geoffrey D. Abrams
  • Joshua D. Harris
  • Anil K. Gupta
  • Frank A. McCormick
  • Brian J. ColeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Meniscus tears in the knee lead to significant pain and disability. The ability of meniscus tears to heal after repair is limited, particularly within the avascular zone. While meniscectomy is a commonly performed and a relatively straightforward treatment option, it is less desirable compared to repair as meniscus deficiency is a predisposing factor for the development of osteoarthritis. Most efforts to augment meniscal repairs in human studies have centered on the use of mechanical stimulation, fibrin clot, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). When meniscal replacement is needed, allograft transplantation is currently the most viable treatment option. Stem cell and growth factor augmentation remain promising alternatives but require further research prior to use in humans.

Keywords

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury High Tibial Osteotomy Meniscus Tear 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Bedi A, Kelly NH, Baad M, et al. Dynamic contact mechanics of the medial meniscus as a function of radial tear, repair, and partial meniscectomy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:1398–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahn JH, Bae TS, Kang KS, et al. Longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus posterior horn in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee significantly influences anterior stability. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:2187–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bonneux I, Vandekerckhove B. Arthroscopic partial lateral meniscectomy long-term results in athletes. Acta Orthop Belg. 2002;68:356–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Greis PE, Holmstrom MC, Bardana DD, et al. Meniscal injury: II. Management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2002;10:177–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Toman CV, Dunn WR, Spindler KP, et al. Success of meniscal repair at anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:1111–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tachibana Y, Sakaguchi K, Goto T, et al. Repair integrity evaluated by second-look arthroscopy after arthroscopic meniscal repair with the FasT-Fix during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:965–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Logan M, Watts M, Owen J, et al. Meniscal repair in the elite athlete: results of 45 repairs with a minimum 5-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:1131–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Majewski M, Stoll R, Widmer H, et al. Midterm and long-term results after arthroscopic suture repair of isolated, longitudinal, vertical meniscal tears in stable knees. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:1072–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haas AL, Schepsis AA, Hornstein J, et al. Meniscal repair using the FasT-Fix all-inside meniscal repair device. Arthroscopy. 2005;21:167–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arnoczky SP, Warren RF. Microvasculature of the human meniscus. Am J Sports Med. 1982;10:90–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gershuni DH, Hargens AR, Danzig LA. Regional nutrition and cellularity of the meniscus. Implications for tear and repair. Sports Med. 1988;5:322–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee SY, Niikura T, Reddi AH. Superficial zone protein (lubricin) in the different tissue compartments of the knee joint: modulation by transforming growth factor beta 1 and interleukin-1 beta. Tissue Eng Part A. 2008;14:1799–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bhargava MM, Hidaka C, Hannafin JA, et al. Effects of hepatocyte growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor on the repair of meniscal defects in vitro. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2005;41:305–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kamimura T, Kimura M. Repair of horizontal meniscal cleavage tears with exogenous fibrin clots. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19:1154–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Webber RJ, Harris MG, Hough Jr AJ. Cell culture of rabbit meniscal fibrochondrocytes: proliferative and synthetic response to growth factors and ascorbate. J Orthop Res. 1985;3:36–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tumia NS, Johnstone AJ. Platelet derived growth factor-AB enhances knee meniscal cell activity in vitro. Knee. 2009;16:73–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ochi M, Uchio Y, Okuda K, et al. Expression of cytokines after meniscal rasping to promote meniscal healing. Arthroscopy. 2001;17:724–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nakata K, Shino K, Hamada M, et al. Human meniscus cell: characterization of the primary culture and use for tissue engineering. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2001:S208–18.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Scordino LE, Deberardino TM. Biologic enhancement of meniscus repair. Clin Sports Med. 2012;31:91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Petersen W, Pufe T, Starke C, et al. Locally applied angiogenic factors—a new therapeutic tool for meniscal repair. Ann Anat. 2005;187:509–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Makris EA, Hadidi P, Athanasiou KA. The knee meniscus: structure–function, pathophysiology, current repair techniques, and prospects for regeneration. Biomaterials. 2011;32:7411–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Imler SM, Doshi AN, Levenston ME. Combined effects of growth factors and static mechanical compression on meniscus explant biosynthesis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2004;12:736–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Riera KM, Rothfusz NE, Wilusz RE, et al. Interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 and integrative meniscal repair: influences on meniscal cell proliferation and migration. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hoberg M, Schmidt EL, Tuerk M, et al. Induction of endostatin expression in meniscal fibrochondrocytes by co-culture with endothelial cells. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2009;129:1137–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang Z, Arnold JA, Williams T, et al. Repairs by trephination and suturing of longitudinal injuries in the avascular area of the meniscus in goats. Am J Sports Med. 1995;23:35–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Uchio Y, Ochi M, Adachi N, et al. Results of rasping of meniscal tears with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury as evaluated by second-look arthroscopy. Arthroscopy. 2003;19:463–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Henning CE, Lynch MA, Clark JR. Vascularity for healing of meniscus repairs. Arthroscopy. 1987;3:13–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    van Trommel MF, Simonian PT, Potter HG, et al. Arthroscopic meniscal repair with fibrin clot of complete radial tears of the lateral meniscus in the avascular zone. Arthroscopy. 1998;14:360–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Henning CE, Lynch MA, Yearout KM, et al. Arthroscopic meniscal repair using an exogenous fibrin clot. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1990:64–72.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Biedert RM. Treatment of intrasubstance meniscal lesions: a randomized prospective study of four different methods. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2000;8:104–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Foster TE, Puskas BL, Mandelbaum BR, et al. Platelet-rich plasma: from basic science to clinical applications. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:2259–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eppley BL, Woodell JE, Higgins J. Platelet quantification and growth factor analysis from platelet-rich plasma: implications for wound healing. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;114:1502–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Delos D, Rodeo SA. Enhancing meniscal repair through biology: platelet-rich plasma as an alternative strategy. Instr Course Lect. 2011;60:453–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ishida K, Kuroda R, Miwa M, et al. The regenerative effects of platelet-rich plasma on meniscal cells in vitro and its in vivo application with biodegradable gelatin hydrogel. Tissue Eng. 2007;13:1103–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zellner J, Mueller M, Berner A, et al. Role of mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering of meniscus. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010;94:1150–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Prockop DJ. Marrow stromal cells as stem cells for nonhematopoietic tissues. Science. 1997;276:71–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    De Bari C, Dell'Accio F, Vanlauwe J, et al. Mesenchymal multipotency of adult human periosteal cells demonstrated by single-cell lineage analysis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:1209–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zuk PA, Zhu M, Ashjian P, et al. Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:4279–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    De Bari C, Dell'Accio F, Tylzanowski P, et al. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells from adult human synovial membrane. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:1928–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gu Y, Zhu W, Hao Y, et al. Repair of meniscal defect using an induced myoblast-loaded polyglycolic acid mesh in a canine model. Exp Ther Med. 2012;3:293–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Maher SA, Rodeo SA, Potter HG, et al. A pre-clinical test platform for the functional evaluation of scaffolds for musculoskeletal defects: the meniscus. HSS J. 2011;7:157–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pabbruwe MB, Kafienah W, Tarlton JF, et al. Repair of meniscal cartilage white zone tears using a stem cell/collagen-scaffold implant. Biomaterials. 2010;31:2583–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Izuta Y, Ochi M, Adachi N, et al. Meniscal repair using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: experimental study using green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. Knee. 2005;12:217–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Angele P, Johnstone B, Kujat R, et al. Stem cell based tissue engineering for meniscus repair. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2008;85:445–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Freedman KB, Nho SJ, Cole BJ. Marrow stimulating technique to augment meniscus repair. Arthroscopy. 2003;19:794–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yoshimura H, Muneta T, Nimura A, et al. Comparison of rat mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, synovium, periosteum, adipose tissue, and muscle. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;327:449–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Horie M, Driscoll MD, Sampson HW, et al. Implantation of allogenic synovial stem cells promotes meniscal regeneration in a rabbit meniscal defect model. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:701–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ruiz-Iban MA, Diaz-Heredia J, Garcia-Gomez I, et al. The effect of the addition of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to a meniscal repair in the avascular zone: an experimental study in rabbits. Arthroscopy. 2011;27:1688–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Saltzman BM, Bajaj S, Salata M, et al. Prospective long-term evaluation of meniscal allograft transplantation procedure: a minimum of 7-year follow-up. J Knee Surg. 2012;25:165–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Verdonk PC, Verstraete KL, Almqvist KF, et al. Meniscal allograft transplantation: long-term clinical results with radiological and magnetic resonance imaging correlations. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2006;14:694–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Harris JD, Cavo M, Brophy R, et al. Biological knee reconstruction: a systematic review of combined meniscal allograft transplantation and cartilage repair or restoration. Arthroscopy. 2011;27:409–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rue JP, Yanke AB, Busam ML, et al. Prospective evaluation of concurrent meniscus transplantation and articular cartilage repair: minimum 2-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:1770–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    van der Wal RJ, Thomassen BJ, van Arkel ER. Long-term clinical outcome of open meniscal allograft transplantation. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:2134–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Marcacci M, Zaffagnini S, Marcheggiani Muccioli GM, et al. Meniscal allograft transplantation without bone plugs: a 3-year minimum follow-up study. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:395–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kim JM, Lee BS, Kim KH, et al. Results of meniscus allograft transplantation using bone fixation: 110 cases with objective evaluation. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:1027–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rodkey WG, Steadman JR, Li ST. A clinical study of collagen meniscus implants to restore the injured meniscus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999:S281–92.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rodkey WG, DeHaven KE, Montgomery III WH, et al. Comparison of the collagen meniscus implant with partial meniscectomy. A prospective randomized trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:1413–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Verdonk P, Beaufils P, Bellemans J, et al. Successful treatment of painful irreparable partial meniscal defects with a polyurethane scaffold: two-year safety and clinical outcomes. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:844–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hopkins SJ, Humphreys M, Jayson MI. Cytokines in synovial fluid. I. The presence of biologically active and immunoreactive IL-1. Clin Exp Immunol. 1988;72:422–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ferretti M, Madhavan S, Deschner J, et al. Dynamic biophysical strain modulates proinflammatory gene induction in meniscal fibrochondrocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C1610–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wilusz RE, Weinberg JB, Guilak F, et al. Inhibition of integrative repair of the meniscus following acute exposure to interleukin-1 in vitro. J Orthop Res. 2008;26:504–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hennerbichler A, Moutos FT, Hennerbichler D, et al. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibit repair of the porcine meniscus in vitro. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007;15:1053–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    McNulty AL, Weinberg JB, Guilak F. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases enhances in vitro repair of the meniscus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467:1557–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Evans CH, Robbins PD. Genetically augmented tissue engineering of the musculoskeletal system. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999:S410–8.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Goto H, Shuler FD, Niyibizi C, et al. Gene therapy for meniscal injury: enhanced synthesis of proteoglycan and collagen by meniscal cells transduced with a TGFbeta(1)gene. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2000;8:266–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Goto H, Shuler FD, Lamsam C, et al. Transfer of lacZ marker gene to the meniscus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999;81:918–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Steinert AF, Palmer GD, Capito R, et al. Genetically enhanced engineering of meniscus tissue using ex vivo delivery of transforming growth factor-beta 1 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid. Tissue Eng. 2007;13:2227–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geoffrey D. Abrams
    • 1
  • Joshua D. Harris
    • 1
  • Anil K. Gupta
    • 1
  • Frank A. McCormick
    • 1
  • Brian J. Cole
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations