Endoluminal Ultrasound

  • Donald G. Kim
  • W. Douglas Wong


  • Equipment used for endoluminal ultrasonography includes a handheld endocavitary probe with rotating transducer which acquires a 360° image. Most investigators use a B-K medical scanner with a rigid handheld type 1850 rotating probe and a 7- or 10-MHz transducer (B-K Medical, Wilmington, MA).

  • Transducers of 7 and 10 MHz provide a focal length of 2–5 and 1–4 cm, respectively, rotating in a 90° scanning plane at 4–6 cycles/s to obtain a 360° radial scan of the rectal wall and surrounding structures. Because of its superior near-image clarity, the 10-MHz transducer is preferred.

  • Rectal imaging requires a latex balloon covering the transducer for acoustic contact.


Fecal Incontinence Anal Sphincter Anal Canal Rectal Wall Muscularis Propria 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Beynon J, Foy DM, Temple LN, Channer JL, Vijee JL, Mortensen NJ. The endoscopic appearances of normal colon and rectum. Dis Colon Rectum. 1986;29(12):810–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hildebrandt U, Feifel G. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound. Dis Colon Rectum. 1985;28(1):42–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saitoh N, Okui K, Sarashina H, Suzuki M, Arai T, Nunomura M. Evaluation of echographic diagnosis of rectal cancer using intrarectal ultrasonic examination. Dis Colon Rectum. 1986;29(4):234–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Holdsworth PJ, Johnston D, Chalmers AG, Chennells P, Dixon MF, Finan PJ, Primrose JN, Quirke P. Endoluminal ultrasound and computed tomography in the staging of rectal cancer. Br J Surg. 1988;75(10):1019–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beynon J. An evaluation of the role of rectal endosonography in rectal cancer. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1989;71(2):131–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rifkin MD, Ehrlich SM, Marks G. Staging of rectal carcinoma: prospective comparison of endorectal US and CT. Radiology. 1989;170(2):319–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Glaser F, Schlag P, Herfarth C. Endorectal ultrasonography for the assessment of invasion of rectal tumours and lymph node involvement. Br J Surg. 1990;77(8):883–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jochem RJ, Reading CC, Dozois RR, Carpenter HA, Wolff BG, Charboneau JW. Endorectal ultrasonographic staging of rectal carcinoma. Mayo Clin Proc. 1990;65(12):1571–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Milsom JW, Graffner H. Intrarectal ultrasonography in rectal cancer staging and in the evaluation of pelvic disease. Clinical uses of intrarectal ultrasound. Ann Surg. 1990;212(5):602–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Orrom WJ, Wong WD, Rothenberger DA, Jensen LL, Goldberg SM. Endorectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal tumors. A learning experience. Dis Colon Rectum. 1990;33(8):654–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Katsura Y, Yamada K, Ishizawa T, Yoshinaka H, Shimazu H. Endorectal ultrasonography for the assessment of wall invasion and lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 1992;35(4):362–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Glaser F, Kuntz C, Schlag P, Herfarth C. Endorectal ultrasound for control of preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer. Ann Surg. 1993;217(1):64–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Herzog U, von Flue M, Tondelli P, Schuppisser JP. How accurate is endorectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal cancer? Dis Colon Rectum. 1993;36(2):127–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bernini A, Deen KI, Madoff RD, Wong WD. Preoperative adjuvant radiation with chemotherapy for rectal cancer: its impact on stage of disease and the role of endorectal ultrasound. Ann Surg Oncol. 1996;3(2):131–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Akasu T, Sugihara K, Moriya Y, Fujita S. Limitations and pitfalls of transrectal ultrasonography for staging of rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 1997;40(10 Suppl):S10–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Adams DR, Blatchford GJ, Lin KM, Ternent CA, Thorson AG, Christensen MA. Use of preoperative ultrasound staging for treatment of rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42(2):159–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim NK, Kim MJ, Yun SH, Sohn SK, Min JS. Comparative study of transrectal ultrasonography, pelvic computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42(6):770–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Garcia-Aguilar J, Pollack J, Lee SH, Hernandez de Anda E, Mellgren A, Wong WD, Finne CO, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD. Accuracy of endorectal ultrasonography in preoperative staging of rectal tumors. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45(1):10–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marusch F, Koch A, Schmidt U, Zippel R, Kuhn R, Wolff S, Pross M, Wierth A, Gastinger I, Lippert H. Routine use of transrectal ultrasound in rectal carcinoma: results of a prospective multicenter study. Endoscopy. 2002;34(5):385–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kauer WK, Prantl L, Dittler HJ, Siewert JR. The value of endosonographic rectal carcinoma staging in routine diagnostics: a 10-year analysis. Surg Endosc. 2004;18(7):1075–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Staff Colon and Rectal SurgeonMichigan State University College of Human MedicineLansingUSA
  2. 2.Spectrum HealthGrand RapidsUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryWeill Medical College of Cornell UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Colorectal Service, Department of SurgeryMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations