Deimination in Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Akihito Ishigami
  • Eun-Kyoung Choi
  • Yong-Sun Kim
  • Naoki Maruyama


Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a group of posttranslational modification enzymes that citrullinate (deiminate) protein arginine residues in a calcium ion-dependent manner. Enzymatic citrullination abolishes positive charges of native protein molecules, inevitably causing significant alterations in their structure and functions. Deiminated protein provides the important physiological advantage of forming a cornified layer of skin that covers the human body (see  Chap. 7 for more details). Despite this beneficial function, deimination also has a negative side, because the accumulation of these proteins in the brain is a possible cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this chapter, we introduce PADs and their protein citrullination function, which is now considered critical for advancing research on aging and neurodegenerative disorders, especially AD.


Alzheimer’s disease Aging Astrocyte Cerebellum Citrullinated (deiminated) proteins Glial fibrillary acidic protein Neurodegenerative disorder Peptidylarginine deiminase Purkinje cells Vimentin 



Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide


Anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin,


Alzheimer’s disease


Benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester






Central nervous system




Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase


Glial fibrillary acidic protein


Neurofibrillary tangles


Microtubule-associated protein 2


Myelin basic protein


Neurofilament 3


Peptidylarginine deiminase


Rheumatoid arthritis


Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction


Senile plaque



The excellent editorial assistance of Ms. P. Minick is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akihito Ishigami
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eun-Kyoung Choi
    • 3
  • Yong-Sun Kim
    • 3
  • Naoki Maruyama
    • 1
  1. 1.Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of GerontologyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Molecular Regulation of Aging, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG)Itabashi-kuJapan
  3. 3.Ilsong Institute of Life Science, Hallym UniversityAnyangRepublic of Korea

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