Deimination in Alzheimer’s Disease
Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a group of posttranslational modification enzymes that citrullinate (deiminate) protein arginine residues in a calcium ion-dependent manner. Enzymatic citrullination abolishes positive charges of native protein molecules, inevitably causing significant alterations in their structure and functions. Deiminated protein provides the important physiological advantage of forming a cornified layer of skin that covers the human body (see Chap. 7 for more details). Despite this beneficial function, deimination also has a negative side, because the accumulation of these proteins in the brain is a possible cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this chapter, we introduce PADs and their protein citrullination function, which is now considered critical for advancing research on aging and neurodegenerative disorders, especially AD.
KeywordsAlzheimer’s disease Aging Astrocyte Cerebellum Citrullinated (deiminated) proteins Glial fibrillary acidic protein Neurodegenerative disorder Peptidylarginine deiminase Purkinje cells Vimentin
Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide
Anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin,
Benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester
Central nervous system
Glial fibrillary acidic protein
Microtubule-associated protein 2
Myelin basic protein
Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
The excellent editorial assistance of Ms. P. Minick is gratefully acknowledged.
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