Imaging Phantoms: Conventional X-ray Imaging Applications

Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)


An imaging phantom is a specially designed physical object that is scanned or imaged in medical imaging to evaluate, analyze, and optimize the performance of various imaging modalities. These phantoms are readily available and provide more consistent results than the use of a living subject or cadaver; their use also serves to avoid subjecting a human subject to unnecessary radiation exposure.


National Electric Manufacturer Association National Electric Manufacturer Association Radiochromic Film Quality Control Tool National Electric Manufacturer Association 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank the manufacturers and suppliers of the phantoms and test tools described in this chapter for providing us with the necessary information regarding their products.


  1. 1.
    International Electrotechnical Commission. (1999). Evaluation and routine testing in medical imaging departments. Part 3-1: Acceptance tests—Imaging performance of X-ray equipment for radiographic and radioscopic systems. IEC 61223-3-1, International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chotas, H. G., Floyd, C. E, Jr, Johnson, G. A., & Ravin, C. E. (1997). Quality control phantom for digital chest radiography. Radiology, 202, 111–116.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Association of Physicists in Medicine. (1998). AAPM Report No. 60. Instrumentation requirements of diagnostic radiological physicist, AAPM.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Association of Physicists in Medicine. (1990). AAPM Report No. 31. Standardized methods for measuring diagnostic X-ray exposures, AAPM.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    National Electric Manufacturers Association. (2000). NEMA Standards Publication XR 21-2000: Characteristics of and test procedures for a phantom to benchmark cardiac fluoroscopic and fluorographic performance. In National Electric Manufacturers Association (Ed.), XR 21-2000, National Electric Manufacturers Association, Virginia, USA.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    International Electrotechnical Commission. (2005). Medical diagnostic X-ray equipment: Radiation conditions for use in the determination of characteristics, IEC 61267. Geneva, Switzerland: International Electrotechnical Commission.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    International Electrotechnical Commission. (2003). Medical electric equipment: Characteristics of digital X-ray imaging devices—Part 1: Determination of the detective quantum efficiency, IEC 62220-1. Geneva, Switzerland: International Electrotechnical Commission.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chida, K., Kaga, Y., Haga, Y., Takeda, K., & Zuguchi, M. (2013). Quality control phantom for flat panel detector X-ray systems. Health Physics, 104, 97–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mayo, P., Rodnenas, F., Marin, B., Campayo, J., G. V. (2009). Analysis of digital radiographic equipments with development of specific phantoms and software. In J. Sloter, et al. (Eds.), IFMBE Proceedings (pp. 425–428) Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ng K. H. (2013). Ensuring safety when transitioning to digital radiography in practice. In Proceedings of the international conference on radiation protection in medicine—Setting the scene for the next decade. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Bonn, Germany, Dec 3–7, 2012. Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang, S., Pavlicek, W., Roberts, C. C., Langer, S. G., Zhang, M., Hu, M., et al. (2011). An automated DICOM database capable of arbitrary data mining (including radiation dose indicators) for quality monitoring. Journal of Digital Imaging, 24, 223–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Conway, B. J., Butler, P. F., Duff, J. E., Fewell, T. R., Gross, R. E., Jennings, R. J., et al. (1984). Beam quality independent attenuation phantom for estimating patient exposure from x-ray automatic exposure controlled chest examinations. Medical Physics, 11, 827–832.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Imaging and University of Malaya Research Imaging CentreUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations