Advertisement

Maternal and Child Health

  • Florence J. Dallo
  • Carolyn Archer
  • Dawn P. Misra
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter describes the current state of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) in the Arab American community. In areas in which any (national or state) data are available to identify Arab Americans, there is evidence in some cases of disadvantage, advantage, or no difference relative to preterm birth. Key areas lacking ethnic specific data include immunization and health insurance coverage. The validity of these assessments are uncertain due to the existing methods of data acquisition, specifically the ability to decipher Arab ethnicity in data sources. The roles of social and cultural factors are also unclear. Migration and acculturation as well as discrimination are two specific stressors on this population that may impact MCH. This chapter highlights the limitations of current data sources and makes recommendations for enhanced future surveillance of MCH for Arab Americans.

Keywords

Arab American Maternal and Child health Perinatal Health Immunization Mental Health Stress Health Care access Surveillance 

References

  1. Abdulrahim, S., & Baker, W. (2009). Differences in self-rated health by immigrant status and language preference among Arab Americans in the Detroit Metropolitan Area. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 68(12), 2097–2103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed, S. R., Kia-Keating, M., & Tsai, K. H. (2011). A structural model of racial discrimination, acculturative stress, and cultural resources among Arab American adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 48(3–4), 181–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajrouch, K. J. (2005). Social relations and mental health among Arab-American elders. Ethnicity & Disease, 15(1 Suppl 1), S1–S109.Google Scholar
  4. Amer, M. (2005). Arab American mental health in the post September 11 era: Acculturation, stress, and coping. Dissertation, The University of Toledo, Ohio.Google Scholar
  5. America’s Children Health Insurance and Access to Care. (1998). In M. Edmunds & M. J. Coye (Eds.), Committee on children health insurance and access to care division of health care services. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine and Board on Children Youth and Families National Research Council and Institute of Medicine.Google Scholar
  6. Arab American Institute. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.aaiusa.org/pages/demographics/
  7. Aswad, M. (2001). Health Survey of the Arab, Muslim, and Chaldean American Communities in Michigan. Dearborn, MI: ACCESS.Google Scholar
  8. Brittingham, A., & de la Cruz, G. P. (2003). We the people of Arab ancestry in the United States (pp. 1–24). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  9. Child Health USA. (2010). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://mchb.hrsa.gov/mchirc/chusa/
  10. Dallo, F., Ajrouch, K. J., & Al-Snih, S. (2008). The ancestry question and ethnic heterogeneity: The case of Arab Americans. International Migration Review, 42, 505–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dallo, F. J., & Borrell, L. N. (2006). Self-reported diabetes and hypertension among Arab Americans in the United States. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(3), 699–705.Google Scholar
  12. Dallo, F. J., Schwartz, K., Ruterbusch, J. J., Booza, J., & Williams, D. R. (2012). Mortality rates among Arab Americans in Michigan. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 14(2), 236–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daniels, S. R., Arnett, D. K., Eckel, R. H., Gidding, S. S., Hayman, L. L., Kumanyika, S., et al. (2005). Overweight in children and adolescents: Pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. Circulation, 111(15), 1999–2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de la Cruz, G. P. (2003). The Arab population: 2000 (pp. 1–12). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  15. Division for Vital Records & Health Statistics, & Health, M. D. o. C. (2010). Michigan resident birth file, from http://www.mdch.state.mi.us/pha/osr/chi/births/frame.html
  16. DuBard, C. A., & Massing, M. W. (2007). Trends in emergency Medicaid expenditures for recent and undocumented immigrants. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(10), 1085–1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. El-Brady, S. M. (1987). Fitting in: An analysis of socioeconomic attainment patterns of foreign-born Arab-Americans and other nationalities in the United States. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  18. El-Sayed, A. M., & Galea, S. (2009a). Explaining the low risk of preterm birth among Arab Americans in the United States: An analysis of 617451 births. [Comparative Study Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. Pediatrics, 123(3), e438–e445. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. El-Sayed, A. M., & Galea, S. (2009b). The health of Arab-Americans living in the United States: A systematic review of the literature. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Review]. BMC Public Health, 9, 272. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. El-Sayed, A., Hadley, C., & Galea, S. (2008). Birth outcomes among Arab Americans in Michigan before and after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. Ethnicity & Disease, 18(3), 348–356.Google Scholar
  21. Farragallah, M., Schumm, W., & Webb, F. (1997). Acculturation of Arab-American immigrants. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 28, 182–203.Google Scholar
  22. Genesee County Health Department. (2003). Arab American health survey. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.gchd.us/pdf/aahs.pdf
  23. Goldman, N., Glei, D. A., & Chang, M. C. (2004). The role of clinical risk factors in understanding self-rated health. Annals of Epidemiology, 14(1), 49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gustafsson, P. E., Janlert, U., Theorell, T., Westerlund, H., & Hammarstrom, A. (2010). Fetal and life course origins of serum lipids in mid-adulthood: Results from a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health, 10, 484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hassoun, R. (2005). Arab Americans in Michigan. Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hedley, A. A., Ogden, C. L., Johnson, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Curtin, L. R., & Flegal, K. M. (2004). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999-2002. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(23), 2847–2850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Horan, A. E. (1995). Arab-American communities and their acculturation into the American culture and society. Dissertation, Walden University, Minneapolis, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  28. Ibish, H. (2003). Report on hate crimes and discrimination against Arab Americans: The Post-September 11 Backlash, September 11, 2001–October 11, 2002 (pp. 1–150).Google Scholar
  29. Jaber, L. A., Brown, M. B., Hammad, A., Zhu, Q., & Herman, W. H. (2003). Lack of acculturation is a risk factor for diabetes in arab immigrants in the US. Diabetes Care, 26(7), 2010–2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jaber, L. A., Brown, M. B., Hammad, A., Zhu, Q., & Herman, W. H. (2004). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among arab americans. Diabetes Care, 27(1), 234–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jadalia, A. A. (2007). Acculturation, health, and health behaviors of adult Arab Americans. Dissertation, Loma Linda University, California.Google Scholar
  32. Jamil, H., Dall, F., Fakhouri, M., Templin, T., Khoury, R., & Fakhouri, H. (2009). The prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions among Arab, Chaldean, and African Americans in southeast Michigan. Ethnicity & Disease, 19, 293–300.Google Scholar
  33. Jamil, H., Fakhouri, M., Dallo, F., Templin, T., Khoury, R., & Fakhouri, H. (2008a). Disparities in self-reported diabetes mellitus among Arab, Chaldean, and black Americans in Southeast Michigan. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 10(5), 397–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jamil, H., Fakhouri, M., Dallo, F., Templin, T., Khoury, R., & Fakhouri, H. (2008b). Self-reported heart disease among Arab and Chaldean American women residing in Southeast Michigan. Ethnicity & Disease, 18, 19–25.Google Scholar
  35. Johnson, M. (2005). Risk factors for asthma among Arab American immigrants in the metro Detroit area. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Detroit.Google Scholar
  36. Johnson, M., Nriagu, J., Hammad, A., Savoie, K., & Jamil, H. (2005). Asthma prevalence and severity in Arab American communities in the Detroit area, Michigan. Journal of Immigrant Health, 7(3), 165–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. (2001). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.kff.org/about/kcmu.cfm
  38. Kotch, J. (Ed.). (2005). Maternal and child health: Programs, problems, and policy in public health (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.Google Scholar
  39. Kotelchuck, M. (1994). An evalution of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposed Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 1414–1420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lara, M., Gamboa, C., Kahramanian, M. I., Morales, L. S., & Bautista, D. E. (2005). Acculturation and Latino health in the United States: A review of the literature and its sociopolitical context. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 367–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lasser, K. E., Himmelstein, D. U., & Woolhandler, S. (2006). Access to care, health status, and health disparities in the United States and Canada: Results of a cross-national population-based survey. American Journal of Public Health, 96(7), 1300–1307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lauderdale, D. S. (2006). Birth outcomes for Arabic-named women in California before and after September 11. Demography, 43(1), 185–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McGraw-Hill. (2002). Concise dictionary of modern medicine. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.Google Scholar
  44. Mersereau, P., Kilker, K., Carter, H., Fassett, E., Williams, J., Flores, A., et al. (2004). Spina bifida and anencephaly before and after folic acid mandate-United States, 1995-1996 and 1999-2000. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53, 362–365.Google Scholar
  45. Michigan Department of Community Health. (2010). Michigan maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting program: Statewide needs assessment (pp. Appendices).Google Scholar
  46. Misra, D. P., Astone, N., & Lynch, C. D. (2005). Maternal smoking and birth weight: Interaction with parity and mother’s own in utero exposure to smoking. Epidemiology, 16(3), 288–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Misra, D. P., & Grason, H. (2006). Achieving safe motherhood: Applying a life course and multiple determinants perinatal health framework in public health. Women's Health Issues, 16(4), 159–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Misra, V. K., & Trudeau, S. (2011). The influence of overweight and obesity on longitudinal trends in maternal serum leptin levels during pregnancy. Obesity (Silver Spring), 19(2), 416–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nasseri, K., Mills, P. K., & Allan, M. (2007). Cancer incidence in the Middle Eastern population of California, 1988-2004. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 8(3), 405–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm
  51. National Health Interview Survey. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm
  52. National Longitudinal Surveys. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.bls.gov/nls/y97summary.htm
  53. National Survey of Children’s Health. (2003, 2007). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.nschdata.org/Content/Default.aspx#Google Scholar
  54. National Survey of Family Growth. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsfg.htm
  55. Nelson, D. A., & Barondess, D. A. (1997). Whole body bone, fat and lean mass in children: Comparison of three ethnic groups. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 103(2), 157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nigem, E. T. (1986). Arab Americans: Migration, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. International Migration Review, 20(3), 629–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nriagu, J., Senthamarai-Kannan, R., Jamil, H., Fakhori, M., & Korponic, S. (2011). Lead poisoning among Arab American and African American children in the Detroit metropolitan area, Michigan. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 87(3), 238–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ohlsson, A., & Shah, P. S. (2011). Effects of the September 11, 2001 disaster on pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 90(1), 6–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Paradies, Y. (2006). A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35, 888–901.Google Scholar
  60. Read, J. G. (2008). Discrimination and identity formation in a Post-9/11 Era: A comparison of Muslim and Christian Arab Americans. In A. Jamal & N. Naber (Eds.), Race and Arab Americans before and after 9/11 (pp. 305–317). New York: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Read, J. G., Amick, B., & Donato, K. M. (2005). Arab immigrants: A new case for ethnicity and health? Social Science & Medicine (1982), 61(1), 77–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards.
  63. Rodewald, L., & Santoli, J. (2003). Childhood immunizations. In H. Wallace, G. Green, & K. Jaros (Eds.), Health and welfare for families in the 21st century (pp. 342–354). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.Google Scholar
  64. Samham, H. H. (1999). Not quite white: Race classification and the Arab American experience. In M. Suleiman (Ed.), Arabs in America: Building a new future (pp. 209–649). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Schwartz, K. L., Kulwicki, A., Weiss, L. K., Fakhouri, H., Sakr, W., Kau, G., et al. (2004). Cancer among Arab Americans in the metropolitan Detroit area. Ethnicity & Disease, 14(1), 141–146.Google Scholar
  66. Shaw, K., Gennat, H., O’Rourke, P., &, Del Mar, C. (2006). Exercise for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database System Review (4), CD003817.Google Scholar
  67. Singh, A. (2002). We are not the enemy: Hate crimes against Arabs, Muslims, and those perceived to be Arab or Muslim after September 11. Human Rights Watch, 14, 1–41.Google Scholar
  68. Smith, A. H., Marshall, G., Yuan, Y., Ferreccio, C., Liaw, J., von Ehrenstein, O., et al. (2006). Increased mortality from lung cancer and bronchiectasis in young adults after exposure to arsenic in utero and in early childhood. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(8), 1293–1296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Swamy, G. K., Ostbye, T., & Skjaerven, R. (2008). Association of preterm birth with long-term survival, reproduction, and next-generation preterm birth. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299(12), 1429–1436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Table 8-AB: Number of Hispanic and Arabic infant deaths by selected county and Michigan Michigan residents. (2009). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.mdch.state.mi.us/pha/osr/InDxMain/HispInfantDeaths.asp
  71. Table 9: Infant hebdomadal fetal and perinatal death rates by specified race and ancestry Michigan residents. (2009). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.mdch.state.mi.us/pha/osr/InDxMain/Table2pt23.asp
  72. Table: Number of live births by birth weight race and ancestry of mother Michigan residents. (2009). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.mdch.state.mi.us/pha/osr/natality/tab1.9.asp
  73. Table: Number of live births by maternal risk factors in pregnancy by race and ancestry of mother Michigan residents. (2009). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.mdch.state.mi.us/pha/osr/natality/RisksRaceNo.asp
  74. Table: Number of live births with prenatal care beginning in the first trimester by age race and ancestry of mother Michigan residents. (2009). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.mdch.state.mi.us/pha/osr/natality/tab1.6.asp
  75. Table: Numbers and percent of low birth weight live births by prenatal care index by race and ancestry of mother Michigan residents. (2009). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.mdch.state.mi.us/pha/osr/natality/tab1.10.asp
  76. Table: Percent of live births by maternal risk factors in pregnancy by race and ancestry of mother Michigan residents. (2009). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.mdch.state.mi.us/pha/osr/natality/RisksRacePer.asp
  77. Table: Percent of live births with prenatal care beginning in the first trimester by age race and ancestry of Mother Michigan residents. (2009). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.mdch.state.mi.us/pha/osr/natality/tab1.6perc.asp
  78. U.S. Census Bureau Population Division. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.census.gov/population/ancestry/anc-faq.html#q02.
  79. United States Census. (2010, 2009). Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.census.gov/
  80. Wallace, H., Green, G., & Jaros, K. (Eds.). (2003). Health and welfare for families in the 21st century (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.Google Scholar
  81. Williams, D. R., Neighbors. H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 200–208.Google Scholar
  82. Williams, D. R., & Mohammed, S. A. (2009). Discrimination and racial disparities in health: Evidence and needed research. Journal of Behavioral Medical, 32, 20–47.Google Scholar
  83. Wrobel, N. H., Farrag, M. F., & Hymes, R. W. (2009). Acculturative stress and depression in an elderly Arabic sample. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 24(3), 273–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Xue, F., & Michels, K. B. (2007). Intrauterine factors and risk of breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of current evidence. The Lancet Oncology, 8(12), 1088–1100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yanni, E. A., Copeland, G., & Olney, R. S. (2010). Birth defects and genetic disorders among Arab Americans–Michigan, 1992–2003. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 12(3), 408–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/yrbs/index.htm.
  87. Zadrozny, S., Power, E. J., Nishimi, R.Y., & Kizer K.W. (Eds.). (2004). Child healthcare quality measurement and reporting. In Workshop Proceedings. Washington, DC: National Quality Forum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florence J. Dallo
    • 1
  • Carolyn Archer
    • 2
  • Dawn P. Misra
    • 2
  1. 1.Wellness, Health Promotion and Injury Prevention, School of Health SciencesOakland UniversityRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Family Medicine and Public Health SciencesWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA

Personalised recommendations