Skip to main content

Teaching Executive Functioning Processes: Promoting Metacognition, Strategy Use, and Effort

Abstract

Students’ success in the digital age is increasingly linked with their ability to take responsibility for their own learning by organizing and integrating a rapidly changing body of information that is available in textbooks and online. From the early grades, they are expected to work independently to complete numerous multistep projects and writing assignments, all tasks that rely on cognitive flexibility and the ability to shift rapidly between different processes. Students’ academic performance therefore depends on the ease with which they plan their time, organize and prioritize materials and information, separate main ideas from details, think flexibly, memorize and mentally manipulate information, and monitor their own progress. As a result, it is essential that all students develop an awareness of how they think and how they learn and that they master strategies that address these executive function processes.

Keywords

  • Executive Function
  • Academic Performance
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Academic Success
  • Cognitive Flexibility

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8106-5_25
  • Chapter length: 29 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   309.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4614-8106-5
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   399.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   399.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 25.1
Fig. 25.2
Fig. 25.3
Fig. 25.4
Fig. 25.5
Fig. 25.6
Fig. 25.7
Fig. 25.8
Fig. 25.9
Fig. 25.10

References

  • Alexander, P. A. (1998). The nature of disciplinary and domain learning: The knowledge, interest, and strategic dimensions of learning from subject matter text. In C. R. Hynd (Ed.), Learning from text across conceptual domains (pp. 263–286). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, P. (2002). Assessment and development of executive functioning (EF) in childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8(2), 71–82.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, V., Rani Jacobs, J., & Anderson, P. (Eds.). (2008). Executive functions and the frontal lobes: A lifespan perspective. New York: Taylor and Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Andrews, G., & Halford, G. S. (2002). A cognitive complexity metric applied to cognitive development. Cognitive Psychology, 45, 153–219.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baddeley, A. (2006). Working memory, an overview. In S. Pickering (Ed.), Working memory and education (pp. 3–26). Massachusetts: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bagnato, J. S., & Meltzer, L. (2010). Self-monitoring and self-checking: The cornerstones of independent living. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Promoting executive function in the classroom (pp. 160–174). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barkley, R. A. (1997). ADHD and the nature of self-control. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves: An inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise. Chicago: Open Court.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bernstein, J., & Waber, D. (2007). Executive capacities from a developmental perspective. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Executive function in education: From theory to practice (pp. 39–54). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Block, C. C., & Pressley, M. (Eds.). (2002). Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bos, C. S., & Anders, P. L. (1992). Using interactive teaching and learning strategies to promote text comprehension and content learning for students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 39, 225–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyle, J. (1996). Thinking while note taking: Teaching college students to use strategic note-taking during lectures. In B. G. Grown (Ed.), Innovative learning strategies: Twelfth yearbook (pp. 9–18). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyle, J. (2001). Enhancing the note-taking skills of students with mild disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 36, 221.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyle, J., & Weishaar, M. (1999). Note-taking strategies for students with mild disabilities. The Clearing House, 72, 392–396.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, R. (1991). The self-esteem teacher: Seeds of self-esteem. New York: Treehaus.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, A. L. (1997). Transforming schools into communities of thinking and learning about serious matters. American Psychologist, 52(4), 399–413.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, A. L., Bransford, J. D., Ferrara, R. A., & Campione, J. (1983). Learning, remembering and understanding. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 77–166). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, A. L., & Campione, J. C. (1983). Psychological theory and the study of learning disabilities. American Psychologist, 41, 1059–1368.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, A. L., & Campione, J. C. (1986). Psychological theory and the study of learning disabilities. American Psychologist, 41, 1059–1068.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, G. D. A., & Deavers, R. P. (1999). Units of analysis in nonword reading: Evidence from children and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 73, 203–242.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bruning, R., & Horn, R. (2000). Developing motivation to write. Educational Psychologist, 35(1), 25–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brunstein, J. C., Schultheiss, O. C., & Grässmann, R. (1998). Personal goals and emotional well-being: The moderating role of motive dispositions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(2), 494–508.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bulgren, J., Schumaker, J. B., & Deschler, D. D. (1988). Effectiveness of a concept teaching routine in enhancing the performance of LD students in secondary-level mainstream classes. Learning Disability Quarterly, 11(1), 3–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carney, R. N., Levin, M. E., & Levin, J. R. (1993). Mnemonic strategies: Instructional techniques worth remembering. Teaching Exceptional Children, 25(4), 24–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cartwright, K. B. (2002). Cognitive development and reading: The relation of multiple classification skill to reading comprehension in elementary school children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 56–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cartwright, K. B. (Ed.). (2008a). Literacy processes: Cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cartwright, K. B. (2008b). Introduction to literacy processes: Cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching. In K. B. Cartwright (Ed.), Literacy processes: Cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching (pp. 3–18). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cartwright, K. B. (2008c). Concluding reflections: What can we learn from considering implications of representational development and flexibility for literacy teaching and learning? In K. B. Cartwright (Ed.), Literacy processes: Cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching (pp. 359–371). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Fockert, J. W., Rees, G., Frith, C. D., & Lavoie, N. (2001). The role of working memory in visual selective attention. Science, 291(5509), 1803–1806.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Deák, G. O. (2008). Foreword for literacy processes: Cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching. In K. B. Cartwright (Ed.), Literacy processes: Cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Denckla, M. B. (1996). Executive function. In D. Gozal & D. Molfese (Eds.), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: From genes to patients (pp. 165–183). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Denckla, M. B. (2007). Executive function: Binding together the definitions of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Executive function in education: From theory to practice (pp. 5–19). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deshler, D. D., Ellis, E. S., & Lenz, B. K. (Eds.). (1996). Teaching adolescents with learning disabilities: Strategies and methods (2nd ed.). Denver: Love.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deshler, D. D., & Schumaker, J. B. (1988). An instructional model for teaching students how to learn. In J. L. Graden, J. E. Zins, & M. J. Curtis (Eds.), Alternative education delivery systems: Enhancing instructional options for all students (pp. 391–411). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deshler, D., & Shumaker, J. (1986). Learning strategies: An instructional alternative for low achieving adolescents. Exceptional Children, 52(6), 583–590.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Deshler, D., Warner, M. M., Schumaker, J. B., & Alley, G. R. (1983). Learning strategies intervention model: Key components and current status. In J. D. McKinney & L. Feagans (Eds.), Current topics in learning disabilities. Norwood: Ablex.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, A. (2006). The early development of executive functions. In E. Bialystok & F. Craik (Eds.), Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change (pp. 70–95). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dweck, C. S. (2008). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: The Random House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elliot, A. J., & Dweck, C. S. (2005). Competence and motivation: Competence as the core of achievement motivation. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 3–15). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ellis, E. S. (1993). Teaching strategy sameness using integrated formats. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 448–482.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ellis, E. S. (1994). Integrating content with writing strategy instruction: Part 2—Writing processes. Intervention in School and Clinic, 29, 219–228.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eslinger, P. J. (1996). Conceptualizing, describing, and measuring components of executive function: A summary. In G. R. Lyon & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, memory, and executive function. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906–911.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flavell, J. H., Friedrichs, A. G., & Hoyt, J. D. (1970). Developmental changes in memorization processes. Cognitive Psychology, 1, 324–340.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flower, L., Stein, V., Ackerman, J., Kantz, M. J., McCormick, K., & Peck, W. C. (1990). Reading-to-write: Exploring a cognitive and social process. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flower, L., Wallace, D. L., Norris, L., & Burnett, R. A. (1994). Making thinking visible: Writing, collaborative planning, and classroom inquiry. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (1991). Framing the REI debate: Conservationists vs abolitionists. In J. W. Lloyd, N. N. Singh, & A. C. Repp (Eds.), The regular education initiative: Alternative perspectives on concepts, issues, and models (pp. 241–255). DeKalb: Sycamore.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaskins, I. W. (2008). Developing cognitive flexibility in word reading among beginning and struggling readers. In K. B. Cartwright (Ed.), Literacy processes: Cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching (pp. 90–114). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2001). Behavior ratings inventory of executive function. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gioia, G., Isquith, P., Guy, S. C., Kenworthy, L., & Barton, R. (2002). Profiles of everyday executive function in acquired and developmental disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 8(2), 121–137.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goldberg, E. (2001). The executive brain: Frontal lobes and the civilized mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goswami, U., Ziegler, J. C., Dalton, L., & Schneider, W. (2001). Pseudohomophone effects and phonological recoding procedures in reading development in English and German. Journal of Memory and Language, 45, 648–664.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goswami, U., Ziegler, J. C., Dalton, L., & Schneider, W. (2003). Nonword reading across orthographies: How flexible is the choice of reading units? Applied PsychoLinguistics, 24, 235–247.

    Google Scholar 

  • Graham, S. (1990). The role of production factors in learning disabled students’ compositions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 781–791.

    Google Scholar 

  • Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2003). Students with learning disabilities and the process of writing: A meta-analysis of SRSD studies. In H. L. Swanson, K. R. Harris, & S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of research on learning disabilities (pp. 383–402). New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gray, L., Meltzer, C., & Upton, M. (2008). The SMARTS peer mentoring program: Fostering self-understanding and resilience across the grades. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Learning Differences Conference, Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gross, J. J. (Ed.). (2007). Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 1–654). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris, K., & Graham, S. (1996). Making the writing process work: Strategies for composition and self-regulation. Cambridge: Brookline Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Mason, L. H., & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students. Baltimore: Brooks.

    Google Scholar 

  • Helliwell, J. F. (2003). How’s Life? Combing individual and national variations to explain subjective well being. Economic Modeling, 20, 331–360.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horton, S. V., Lovitt, T. C., & Bergerud, D. (1990). The effectiveness of graphic organizers for three classifications of secondary students in content area classes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 12–22.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hughes, C. A. (1991). Studying for and taking tests: Self-reported difficulties and strategies of university students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 13, 66–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hughes, C. (1996). Memory and test-taking strategies. In D. D. Deshler, E. S. Ellis, & B. K. Lenz (Eds.), Teaching adolescents with learning disabilities: Strategies and methods (2nd ed., pp. 209–266). Denver: Love.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hughes, C. A., Ruhl, K. L., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (2002). Effects of instruction in an assignment completion strategy on the homework performance of students with learning disabilities in general education classes. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 17(1), 1–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hughes, C. A., & Suritsky, S. K. (1994). Note-taking skills of university students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 20–24.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kame’enui, E. J. (2007). Responsiveness to intervention: A new paradigm. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 6–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 280–287.

    Google Scholar 

  • Katamaya, A. D., & Robinson, D. H. (2000). Getting students “partially” involved in note-taking using graphic organizers. The Journal of Experimental Education, 68, 119–134.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kiewra, K. A., DuBois, N. F., Christian, D., McShane, A., Meyerhoffer, M., & Roskelley, D. (1991). Note-taking functions and techniques. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 240–245.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, B. A., Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., & Shangjin, W. J. (2004). Graphic organizers and their effects on the reading comprehension of students with LD: A synthesis of research. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(2), 105–119.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kincaid, K. M., & Trautman, N. (2010). Remembering: Teaching students how to retain and mentally manipulate information. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Promoting executive function in the classroom (pp. 110–139). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., & Boardman, A. (2007). Teaching reading comprehension to students with learning difficulties. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krishnan, K., & Feller, M. J. (2010). Organizing: The heart of efficient and successful learning. In K. R. Harris & S. Graham (Eds.), Promoting executive function in the classroom. New York, NY: The Gilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krishnan, K., Feller, M. J., & Orkin, M. (2010). Goal setting, planning, and prioritizing: The foundations of effective learning. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Promoting executive function in the classroom (pp. 57–85). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lazarus, B. D. (1991). Guided notes, review and achievement of secondary students with learning disabilities in mainstream content courses. Education and Treatment of Children, 14, 112–127.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1991). Teaching students ways to remember: Strategies for learning mnemonically. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1998). Enhancing school success with mnemonic strategies. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33, 201–208.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mayer, R. E. (1984). Aids to text comprehension. Educational Psychologist, 19(1), 30–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L. (1993). Strategy use in children with learning disabilities: The challenge of assessment. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Strategy assessment and instruction for students with learning disabilities: From theory to practice (pp. 93–136). Texas: Pro-Ed.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L. (1996). Strategic learning in students with learning disabilities: The role of self-awareness and self-perception. In T. E. Scruggs & M. Mastropieri (Eds.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (Vol. 10b, pp. 181–199). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L. (2004). Resilience and learning disabilities: Research on internal and external protective dynamics. Introduction to the special series. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 19(1), 1–2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L. (Ed.). (2007). Executive function in education: From theory to practice. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L. (Ed.). (2010). Promoting executive function in the classroom. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., & Bagnato, J. S. (2010). Shifting and flexible problem solving: The anchors for academic success. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Promoting executive function in the classroom (pp. 140–159). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., & Basho, S. (2010). Creating a classroomwide executive function culture that fosters strategy use, motivation, and resilience. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Promoting executive function in the classroom (pp. 28–54). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., Katzir, T., Miller, L., Reddy, R., & Roditi, B. (2004). Academic self-perceptions, effort, and strategy use in students with learning disabilities: Changes over time. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 19(2), 99–108.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., Katzir-Cohen, T., Miller, L., & Roditi, B. (2001). The impact of effort and strategy use on academic performance: Student and teacher perceptions. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 24(2), 85–98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., & Krishnan, K. (2007). Executive function difficulties and learning disabilities: Understandings and misunderstandings. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Executive function in education: From theory to practice (pp. 77–106). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., & Montague, M. (2001). Strategic learning in students with learning disabilities: What have we learned? In B. Keogh & D. Hallahan (Eds.), Intervention research and learning disabilities (pp. 111–130). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., Noeder, M., Basho, S., Stacey, W., Button, K., & Sales Pollica, L. (2007). Executive function strategies, effort, and academic self-perceptions: Impact on academic performance. Paper presented at the 31st Annual Conference of the International Academy for Research in Learning Disabilities, Bled, Slovenia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., Reddy, R., Brach, E., Kurkul, K., & Basho, S. (2011). Self-concept, motivation, and executive function: Impact of a peer mentoring program. Paper presented at the Pacific Coast Research Conference, San Diego, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., Reddy, R., Brach, E., Kurkul, K., Stacey, W., & Ross, E. (2011). The SMARTS mentoring program: Fostering self-concept, motivation, and executive function strategies in students with learning difficulties. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., Reddy, R., Pollica, L., & Roditi, B. (2004). Academic success in students with learning disabilities: The roles of self-understanding, strategy use, and effort. Thalamus, 22(1), 16–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L. J., Reddy, R., Sales, L., et al. (2004). Positive and negative self-perceptions: Is there a cyclical relationship between teachers’ and students’ perceptions of effort, strategy use, and academic performance? Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 19(1), 33–44.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L. J., Roditi, B., Houser, R. F., & Perlman, M. (1998). Perceptions of academic strategies and competence in students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31(5), 437–451.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., Sales-Pollica, L., & Barzillai, M. (2007). Executive function in the classroom: Embedding strategy instruction into daily teaching practices. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Executive function in education: From theory to practice (pp. 165–194). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L. J., Sayer, J., Sales, L., Theokas, C., & Roditi, B. (2002). Academic self-perceptions in students with LD: Relationship with effort and strategy use. Paper presented at the International Academy for Research in Learning Disabilities conference, Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer, L., Solomon, B., Fenton, T., & Levine, M. D. (1989). A developmental study of problem-solving strategies in children with and without learning difficulties. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 10, 171–193.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, L., Meltzer, L. J., Katzir-Cohen, T., & Houser, R. F., Jr. (2001). Academic heterogeneity in students with learning disabilities. Thalamus, 19, 20–33.

    Google Scholar 

  • Montague, M. (2003). Solve it: A mathematical problem-solving instructional program. Reston, VA: Exceptional Innovations.

    Google Scholar 

  • Montague, M., & Jitendra, A. K. (2006). Teaching mathematics to middle school students with learning difficulties. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Montague, M., Warger, C., & Morgan, H. (2000). Solve it!: Strategy instruction to improve mathematical problem solving. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15, 110–116.

    Google Scholar 

  • Noeder, M. (2007). The Drive to Thrive program: Fostering effective strategy use, metacognitive awareness, effort, and persistence. Unpublished master’s thesis, Tufts University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pajares, F., & Schunk, D. H. (2001). Self-beliefs and school success: Self-efficacy, self-concept, and school achievement. In R. Riding & S. Rayner (Eds.), Perception (pp. 239–266). London: Alex.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paris, S. G. (1986). Teaching children to guide their reading and learning. In T. E. Raphael (Ed.), The contexts of school-based literacy (pp. 115–130). New York: Random House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paris, S. G., Lipson, M., & Wixson, K. (1983). Becoming a strategic reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 292–316.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (1990). Promoting metacognition and motivation of exceptional children. Remedial and Special Education, 11(6), 7–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pearson, P. D., & Dole, J. A. (1987). Explicit comprehension instruction: A review of research and new conceptualization of instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 88, 151–165.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pressley, M., & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Verbal protocols of reading: The nature of constructively responsive reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. D. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89, 301–342.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reid, R. (1996). Research in self-monitoring with students with learning disabilities: The present, the prospects, the pitfalls. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 317–331.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Reid, R., & Harris, K. R. (1993). Self-monitoring of attention vs self-monitoring of performance: Effects on attention and academic performance. Exceptional Children, 60, 29–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reid, R., & Lienemann, T. O. (2006). Strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Renninger, K. A., Hidi, S., & Krapp, A. (2004). The role of interest in learning and development. In D. Yun Dai & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • ResearchILD & FableVision. (2003). BrainCogs: The personal interactive coach for learning and studying [Computer software]. Boston: FableVision. http://www.fablevision.com

  • ResearchILD & FableVision. (2005). Essay Express: Strategies for successful essay writing. Boston: FableVision. http://www.fablevision.com

  • Ritchie, D., & Volkl, C. (2000). Effectiveness of two generative learning strategies in the science classroom. School Science and Mathematics, 100(2), 83–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roditi, B. N., & Steinberg, J. (2007). The strategic math classroom: Executive function processes and mathematics learning. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Executive function in education: From theory to practice (pp. 237–261). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosenshine, B. (1997). Advances in research on instruction. In J. W. Lloyd, E. J. Kameenui, & D. Chard (Eds.), Issues in educating students with disabilities (pp. 197–221). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sah, A., & Borland, J. H. (1989). The effects of a structured home plan on the home and school behaviors of gifted learning-disabled students with deficits in organizational skills. Roeper Review, 12(1), 54–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scanlon, D. J., Duran, G. Z., Reyes, E. I., & Gallego, M. A. (1992). Interactive semantic mapping: An interactive approach to enhancing LD students’ content area comprehension. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 7, 142–146.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schunk, D. H. (2001). Self-regulation through goal setting. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services: Greensboro, NC. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 462 671).

    Google Scholar 

  • Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2000). The effectiveness of mnemonic instruction for students with learning and behavior problems: An update and research synthesis. Journal of Behavioral Education, 10, 163–173.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shanahan, C. H., & Shanahan, T. (2008). Content-area reading/learning: Flexibility in knowledge acquisition. In K. B. Cartwright (Ed.), Literacy processes: Cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching (pp. 208–234). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 482–497.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shimabukuro, S. M., Prater, M. A., Jenkins, A., & Edelen-Smith, P. (1999). The effects of self monitoring of academic performance on students with learning disabilities and ADD/ADHD. Education and Treatment of Children, 22(4), 397–415.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stein, J. (2010). Emotional self-regulation: A critical component of executive function. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Promoting executive function in the classroom (pp. 175–201). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stein, J., & Krishnan, K. (2007). Nonverbal learning disabilities and executive function: The challenge of effective assessment and teaching. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Executive function in education: From theory to practice (pp. 106–132). New York, NY: Guildford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sternberg, R. J. (2005). Intelligence, competence, and expertise. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 15–31). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stone, C. A., & Conca, L. (1993). The origin of strategy deficits in children with learning disabilities: A social constructivist perspective. In L. J. Meltzer (Ed.), Strategy assessment and instruction for students with learning disabilities: From theory to practice (pp. 23–59). Austin: Pro-Ed.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stone, C. A., & May, A. (2002). The accuracy of academic self-evaluations in adolescents with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(4), 370–383.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Suritsky, S. K. (1992). Note-taking approaches and specific areas of difficulty reported by university students with learning disabilities. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 10, 3–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, L. (1989). Strategy instruction: Overview of principles and procedures for effective use. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 12, 3–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L. (1999). Instructional components that predict treatment outcomes for students with learning disabilities: Support for a combined strategy and direct instruction model. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 14, 129–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L. (2001). Research on intervention for adolescents with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of outcomes related to high-order processing. The Elementary School Journal, 101, 331–348.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (1998). Experimental intervention research on students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of treatment outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 68, 277–321.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (2001). Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(2), 109–119.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L., & Sáez, L. (2003). Memory difficulties in children and adults with learning disabilities. In H. L. Swanson, K. R. Harris, & S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of learning disabilities (pp. 182–198). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72, 271–324.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tannock, R. (2008). Inattention and working memory: Effects on academic performance. Paper Presented at the 23rd Annual Learning Differences Conference, Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Torgesen, J. K. (1977). The role of nonspecific factors in the task performance of learning disabled children: A theoretical assessment. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 10, 27–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Westman, A. S., & Kamoo, R. L. (1990). Relationship between using conceptual comprehension of academic material and thinking abstractly about global life issues. Psychological Reports, 66(2), 387–390.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Winne, P. H. (1996). A metacognitive view of individual differences in self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 8(4), 327–353.

    Google Scholar 

  • Winne, P. H. (2001). Self-regulated learning viewed from models of information processing. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 153–189). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yuill, N. (2007). Visiting Joke City: How can talking about jokes foster metalinguistic awareness in poor comprehenders? In D. MacNamara (Ed.), Reading comprehension. New York: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yuill, N., & Bradwell, J. (1998). The laughing PC: How a software riddle package can help children’s reading comprehension. Proceedings of the British Psychological Society, 6, 119.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yun Dai, D., & Sternberg, R. J. (Eds.). (2004). Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zelazo, O. D., & Müller, U. (2002). Executive function in typical and atypical development. In U. Goswami (Ed.), Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development (pp. 445–469). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zelazo, P. D., Müller, U., Frye, D., & Marcovitch, S. (2003). The development of executive function in early childhood. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68 (3, Serial No. 274).

    Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Academic studying and the development of personal skill: A self-regulatory perspective. Educational Psychologist, 33, 73–86.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–39). San Diego, CA: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (1997). Developmental phases in self-regulation: Shifting from process to outcome goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 29–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.). (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

A special thanks to a number of colleagues, staff, and interns for their excellent suggestions and help with the technical details involved in the preparation of this chapter, in particular:

Abigail DeMille, Sage Bagnato, Laura Pollica, Ranjini Reddy, Julie Sayer, Anna Lavelle, Lauren Depolo, and Thelma Segal.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lynn Meltzer .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Meltzer, L. (2014). Teaching Executive Functioning Processes: Promoting Metacognition, Strategy Use, and Effort. In: Goldstein, S., Naglieri, J. (eds) Handbook of Executive Functioning. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8106-5_25

Download citation