History and Future of the Solo Papaya

  • Richard ManshardtEmail author
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 10)


Dioecious papayas were probably introduced into Hawaii shortly after Cook’s first visit in 1778, but they were supplanted for commercial purposes by the gynodioecious “solo” papaya brought from the Caribbean in 1911. The positive characteristics of solo fruits included 12–15 % TSS, agreeable flavor and texture, and size suitable for consumption by a single individual (hence, “solo”). Growth of the local, solo-based papaya industry accelerated after genetic analysis of sex segregation in gynodioecious lines allowed the planting of predictably uniform fields of hermaphrodite plants. Early cultivar improvement efforts focused on symmetrical fruits of high quality, free of stamen carpellody and carpel abortion (Lines 5 and 8). Expansion into export markets was facilitated in the 1950s by selection of “Kapoho,” a cultivar with excellent postharvest qualities, well adapted to Hawaii’s unique rainforest environment. Breeding objectives of subsequent releases have included red flesh color (“Sunrise” and “Sunset”), low-bearing habit and, serendipitously, tolerance to Phytophthora root and fruit rots (“Waimanalo” and “Kamiya”), and genetically engineered resistance to papaya ring spot virus (“SunUp,” “Rainbow,” and “Laie Gold”). Future goals will necessitate major changes in the wild phenotype, including true-breeding hermaphrodites, redirection of vegetative vigor into precocious root development rather than shoot elongation, and limiting fruit production to a single ovary per node.


Total Soluble Solid Papaya Genome Papaya Seed High Total Soluble Solid Reproductive Sink 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Tropical Plant and Soil SciencesUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

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