Advertisement

Papaya Nutritional Analysis

  • Marisa M. WallEmail author
  • Savarni Tripathi
Chapter
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 10)

Abstract

Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and choosing a production location with a favorable climate are essential to maximize the nutritional composition of papayas. The genetic diversity within Carica papaya is quite narrow, but it is possible to broaden the germplasm base to improve nutritional composition through traditional breeding or transgenic methods. Recent advances in papaya genomics, gene identification, transcript characterization, high-density linkage maps, and transgenic methods will support further germplasm improvement. Potential applications of the genetic tools for enhancing papaya nutritional composition are explored, with an emphasis on carotenoids and ascorbic acid.

Keywords

Nutritional Composition Flesh Color Dietary Reference Intake Total Carotenoid Content Papaya Fruit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agius F, Gonzalez-Lamothe R, Caballero JL, Munoz-Blanco J, Botella MA, Valpuesta V (2003) Engineering increased vitamin C levels in plants by overexpression of a d-galacturonic acid reductase. Nature Biotech 21:177–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aradhya MK, Manshardt RM, Zee F, Morden CW (1999) A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Carica L. (Caricaceae) based on restriction fragment length variation in a cpDNA intergenic spacer region. Genet Resour Crop Evol 46:579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badillo VM (2000) Carica L. vs. Vasconcella St. Hill. (Caricaceae) con la rehabilitacion de este ultimo. Ernstia 10:74–79Google Scholar
  4. Barata-Soares AD, Gomez ML, de Mesquita CH, Lajolo FM (2004) Ascorbic acid biosynthesis: a precursor study on plants. Braz J Plant Physiol 16:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barreto G, Fabi JP, De Rosso VV, Cordenunsi BR, Lajolo FM, Nascimento J, Mercadante AZ (2011) Influence of ethylene on carotenoid biosynthesis during papaya postharvest ripening. J Food Comp Anal 24:620–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria CM, Vupputuri S, Myers L, Whelton PK (2002) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr 76: 93–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blas AL, Ming R, Liu Z, Veatch OJ, Paull RE, Moore PH, Yu Q (2010) Cloning of the papaya chromoplast-specific lycopene β-cyclase, CpCYC-b, controlling fruit flesh color reveals conserved microsynteny and a recombination hot spot. Plant Physiol 152:2012–2022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bramley PM (2000) Is lycopene beneficial to human health? Phytochemistry 54:233–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breithaupt D, Weller P, Wolters M, Hahn A (2003) Plasma response to a single dose of dietary esters from papaya (Carica papaya L.) or non-esterified β-cryptoxanthin in adult human subjects: a comparative study. Br J Nutr 90:795–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bron IU, Jacomino AP (2006) Ripening and quality of “Golden” papaya fruit harvested at different maturity stages. Braz J Plant Physiol 18:389–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campostrini E, Glenn DM (2007) Ecophysiology of papaya: a review. Braz J Plant Physiol 19:413–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan HT, Hibbard KL, Goo T, Akamine EK (1979) Sugar composition of papayas during fruit development. HortScience 14:140–141Google Scholar
  13. Chandrika UG, Jansz ER, Wickramasinghe S, Warnasuriya ND (2003) Carotenoids in yellow- and red-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.). J Sci Food Agric 83:1279–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Devitt LC, Fanning K, Dietzgen RG, Holton TA (2010) Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene β-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.). J Exp Bot 61:33–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fabi JP, Cordenunsi BR, Seymour GB, Lajolo FM, Oliveira do Nascimento JR (2009) Molecular cloning and characterization of a ripening-induced polygalacturonase related to papaya fruit softening. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:1075–1081Google Scholar
  16. Fabi JP, Mendes LR, Lajolo FM, Nascimento J (2010) Transcript profiling of papaya fruit reveals differentially expressed genes associated with fruit ripening. Plant Sci 179:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Franke AA, Custer LJ, Arakaki C, Murphy SP (2004) Vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. J Food Comp Anal 17:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gayosso-Garcia Sancho LE, Yahia EM, Gonzalez-Aguilar GA (2011) Identification and quantification of phenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C from papaya (Carica papaya L., cv. Maradol) fruit determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI. Food Res Int 44:1284–1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gomez M, Lajolo B, Cordenunsi B (2002) Evolution of soluble sugars during ripening of papaya fruit and its relation to sweet taste. J Food Sci 67:442–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Granado F, Olmedilla B, Blanco I, Gil-Martinez E, Rojas-Hidalgo E (1997) Variability in the intercomparison of food carotenoid content data: a user’s point of view. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37:621–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hardisson A, Rubio C, Baez A, Martin MM, Alvarez R (2001) Mineral composition of the papaya (Carica papaya variety Sunrise) from Tenerife Island. Eur Food Res Technol 212:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hernandez Y, Lobo MG, Gonzalez M (2006) Determination of vitamin C in tropical fruits: a comparative evaluation of methods. Food Chem 96:654–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Institute of Medicine (IOM) (1998) Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  24. Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2000a) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  25. Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2000b) Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  26. Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2001) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  27. Isabelle M, Lee BL, Lim MT, Koh WP, Huang D, Ong CN (2010) Antioxidant activity and profiles of common fruits in Singapore. Food Chem 123:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jiao Z, Deng J, Li G, Zhang Z, Cai Z (2010) Study on the compositional differences between transgenic and non-transgenic papaya (Carica papaya L.). J Food Comp Anal 23: 640–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Joshipura KJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Speizer FE, Colditz G, Ascherio A, Rosner B, Spiegelman D, Willett WC (2001) The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med 134:1106–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kim MS, Moore PH, Zee F, Fitch MM, Steiger DL, Manshardt RM, Paull RE, Drew RA, Sekioka T, Ming R (2002) Genetic diversity of Carica papaya as revealed by AFLP markers. Genome 45:503–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kimura M, Rodriguez-Amaya DB, Yokoyama SM (1991) Cultivar differences and geographic effects on the carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of papaya. Leben Wissen Technol 25:415–418Google Scholar
  32. Lee SK, Kader AA (2000) Preharvest and postharvest factors influencing vitamin C content of horticultural crops. Postharvest Biol Technol 20:207–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Manenoi A, Paull RE (2007) Papaya fruit softening, endoxylanase gene expression, protein and activity. Physiol Plant 131:470–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Manshardt RM, Wenslaff TF (1989) Interspecific hybridization of papaya with other species. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 114:689–694Google Scholar
  35. Martin A, Cherubin A, Andres-Lacueva C, Paniagua M, Joseph J (2002) Effects of fruits and vegetables on levels of vitamins E and C in the brain and their association with cognitive performance. J Nutr Health Aging 6:392–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Melo E, de Lima VL, Maciel MI (2006) Polyphenol, ascorbic acid and total carotenoid contents in common fruits and vegetables. Braz J Food Technol 9:89–94Google Scholar
  37. Miller NJ, Sampson J, Candeias LP, Bramley PM, Rice-Evans CA (1996) Antioxidant activities of carotenes and xanthophylls. FEBS Lett 384:240–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ming R, Hou S, Feng Y, Yu Q, Dionne-Laporte A, Saw JH, Senin P, Wang W, Ly BV, Lewis KL et al (2008) The draft genome of the transgenic tropical tree fruit papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeas). Nature 452:991–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Morton J (1987) Papaya. In: Morton J (ed) Fruits of warm climates. Florida Flair Books, Miami. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/papaya_ars.html. Accessed 1 Jun 2011
  40. Murphy SP (2002) Dietary reference intakes for the U.S. and Canada: update on implications for nutrient databases. J Food Comp Anal 15:411–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mutsuga M, Ohta H, Toyoda M, Goda Y (2001) Comparison of carotenoid components between GM and non-GM papaya. J Food Hyg Soc Jpn 42:367–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. O’Brien C, Drew RA (2010) Marker-assisted hybridization and backcrossing between Vasconcellea species and Carica papaya for PRSV-P resistance. Acta Hortic 859:361–368Google Scholar
  43. Philip T, Chen T (1988) Quantitative analyses of major carotenoid fatty acid esters in fruits by liquid chromatography: persimmon and papaya. J Food Sci 53:1720–1722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ramos HCC, Pereira MG, Silva FF, Goncalves LSA, Pinto FO, de Souza Filho GA, Pereira TSN (2011) Genetic characterization of papaya plants (Carica papaya L.) derived from the first backcross generation. Genet Mol Res 10:393–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rao AV, Agarwal S (2000) Role of antioxidant lycopene in cancer and heart disease. J Amer Coll Nutr 19:563–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Riboli E, Norat T (2003) Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 78:559–569Google Scholar
  47. Rivera-Pastrana DM, Yahia EM, Gonzalez-Aquilar GA (2010) Phenolic and carotenoid profiles of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) and their contents under low temperature storage. J Sci Food Agric 90:2358–2365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Roberts M, Minott DA, Tennant PF, Jackson JC (2008) Assessment of compositional changes during ripening of transgenic papaya modified for protection against papaya ringspot virus. J Sci Food Agric 88:1911–1920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Saxholt E, Christensen AT, Moller A, Hartkopp HB, Hess Ygil K, Hels OH (2008) Danish food composition databank, revision 7. Department of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark. http://www.foodcomp.dk/. Accessed 17 Aug 2011
  50. Schweiggert RM, Steingass CB, Mora E, Esquivel P, Carle R (2011) Carotenogenesis and physico-chemical characteristics during maturation of red fleshed papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). Food Res Int 44:1373–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Setiawan B, Sulaeman A, Giraud DW, Driskell JA (2001) Carotenoid content of selected Indonesian fruits. J Food Comp Anal 14:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shewfelt RL (1990) Sources of variation in the nutrient content of agricultural commodities from the farm to the consumer. J Food Qual 13:37–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shukla V, Mattoo AK (2009) Potential for engineering horticultural crops with high antioxidant capacity. CAB Rev 066:1–22Google Scholar
  54. Skelton RL, Yu Q, Srinivasan R, Manshardt R, Moore PH, Ming R (2006) Tissue differential expression of lycopene β-cyclase gene in papaya. Cell Res 16:731–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tripathi S, Suzuki JY, Carr JB, McQuate GT, Ferreira SA, Manshardt RM, Pitz KY, Wall MM, Gonsalves D (2011) Nutritional composition of Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic fruit crop. J Food Comp Anal 24:140–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (2009) National nutrient database for standard reference, release 23. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/. Accessed 17 Aug 2011
  57. Van Droogenbroeck B, Kyndt T, Maertens I, Romeijn-Peeters E, Scheldeman X, Romero-Motochi JP, Van Damme P, Goetghebeur P, Gheysen G (2004) Theor Appl Genet 108:1473–1486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vinci G, Botre F, Mele G, Ruggieri G (1995) Ascorbic acid in exotic fruits: a liquid chromatographic investigation. Food Chem 53:211–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wall MM (2006) Ascorbic acid, vitamin A and mineral composition of banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars grown in Hawaii. J Food Comp Anal 19:434–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wall MM, Nishijima KA, Fitch MM, Nishijima WT (2010) Physicochemical, nutritional and microbial quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease. J Food Qual 33:131–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wenkam NS (1990) Food of Hawaii and the Pacific Basin, fruits and fruit products: raw, processed, and prepared. vol 4: composition. Hawaii Agric Expt Sta Res Ext Ser 110: 96 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Wills R, Lim J, Greenfield H (1986) Composition of Australian foods. 31. tropical and sub-tropical fruit. Food Technol Aust 38:118–123Google Scholar
  63. World Health Organization (WHO) (2009) Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005. WHO global database on vitamin A deficiency. http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/vitamin_a_deficiency/9789241598019/en/index.html. Accessed 28 Nov 2011
  64. Yamamoto HY (1964) Comparison of the carotenoids in yellow- and red-fleshed Carica papaya. Nature 201:1049–1050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yan P, Gao XZ, Shen WT, Zhou P (2011) Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya. Mol Biol Rep 38:785–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yu Q, Tong E, Skelton RL, Bowers JE, Jones MR, Murray JE, Hou S, Guan P, Acob RA, Luo MC, Moore PH, Alam M, Paterson AH, Ming R (2009) A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence. BMC Genomics 10:371–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhou L, Paull RE (2001) Sucrose metabolism during papaya (Carica papaya) fruit growth and ripening. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 126:351–357Google Scholar
  68. Zhou L, Christopher DA, Paull RE (2000) Defoliation and fruit removal effects on papaya fruit production, sugar accumulation, and sucrose metabolism. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 125:644–652Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, US Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research ServiceHiloUSA

Personalised recommendations