Bacillary angiomatosis of lymph nodes is a benign tumor-like microvascular proliferation caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Bacillary angiomatosis is commonly associated with immunodeficiency, acquired usually through infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but rarely caused by other acquired conditions (eg, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, solid organ transplantation) that compromise the immune system. Bacillary angiomatosis can involve any organ, but skin is the most common site. Epidemiologic data has linked bacillary angiomatosis to exposure to domestic cats that acquire the infection through a flea vector and constitute a reservoir for Bartonella henselae. A gram-negative bacillus, Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent of several diseases in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals, including cat-scratch disease, peliosis hepatis, and endocarditis. Whereas the bacterium causes bacillary angiomatosis almost exclusively in HIV-positive individuals, infection leads to cat-scratch disease, a necrotizing granulomatous inflammatory lymphadenitis, in HIV-negative and apparently immunocompetent individuals.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Factor VIII Etiologic Agent Solid Organ Transplantation Nuclear Pleomorphism
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