Disease Resistance

  • Hongjing Li
  • Shiping Wang
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 5)


Rice, as a crop that is closely related to human being, is severely damaged by diseases caused by bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Application of natural genetic disease resistance mechanisms is the most economical and environmentally friendly approach to solve this problem. Research results on some rice–pathogen interaction systems provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of both qualitative and quantitative resistance. Compare with qualitative resistance, quantitative resistance is more broad spectrum and durable. It is the most important or only form of resistance to necrotrophic pathogens and even some biotrophic pathogens. So, besides R genes, PRRs and genes contributing to resistance QTLs also are valuable resources for the improvement of rice disease resistance.


Salicylic Acid Sheath Blight Quantitative Resistance Resistance QTLs Rice Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30930063) and the National Program of High Technology Development of China (2012AA10A303).


  1. 1.
    Shimamoto K, Kyozuka J (2002) Rice as a model for comparative genomics of plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:399–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang Q (2007) Strategies for developing Green Super Rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16402–16409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boch J, Bonas U (2010) Xanthomonas AvrBs3 family-type III effectors: discovery and function. Annu Rev Phytopathol 48:419–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mew TW, Alvarez AM, Leach JE, Swings J (1993) Focus on bacterial blight of rice. Plant Dis 77:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nino-Liu DO, Ronald PC, Bogdanove AJ (2006) Xanthomonas oryzae pathovars: model pathogens of a model crop. Mol Plant Pathol 7:303–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kou Y, Wang S (2012) Toward an understanding of the molecular basis of quantitative disease resistance in rice. J Biotechnol 159:283–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sesma A, Osbourn AE (2004) The rice leaf blast pathogen undergoes developmental processes typical of root-infecting fungi. Nature 431:582–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen H, Wang S, Xing Y, Xu C, Hayes PM, Zhang Q (2003) Comparative analyses of genomic locations and race specificities of loci for quantitative resistance to Pyricularia grisea in rice and barley. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:2544–2549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ou SH (1985) Rice disease, 2nd edn. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, SurreyGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koiso Y, Natori M, Iwasaki S et al (1992) Ustiloxin: a phytotoxin and a mycotoxin from false smut balls on rice panicles. Tetrahedron Lett 33:4157–4160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ramirez BC, Haenni AL (1994) Molecular biology of tenuiviruses, a remarkable group of plant viruses. J Gen Virol 75:467–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hibino H (1989) Insect-borne viruses in rice. In: Harris KF (ed) Advances in disease vector research, vol 6. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Toriyama S (2004) Rice stripe tenuivirus. In: Lapierre H, Signoret P (eds) Viruses and virus diseases of Poaceae. INRA Editions, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hull R (1996) Molecular biology of rice tungro viruses. Annu Rev Phytopathol 34:275–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hibino H (1996) Biology and epidemiology of rice viruses. Annu Rev Phytopathol 34:249–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marzachi C, Boccardo G, Milne R, Isogai M, Uyeda I (1995) Genome structure and variability of Fijiviruses. Semin Virol 6:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kou Y, Wang S (2010) Broad-spectrum and durability: understanding of quantitative disease resistance. Curr Opin Plant Biol 13:181–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thomma BP, Nürnberger T, Joosten MH (2011) Of PAMPs and effectors: the blurred PTI-ETI dichotomy. Plant Cell 23:4–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jones JD, Dangl JL (2006) The plant immune system. Nature 444:323–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bittel P, Robatzek S (2007) Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) probe plant immunity. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:335–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Postel S, Kemmerling B (2009) Plant systems for recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Semin Cell Dev Biol 20:1025–1031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    da Cunha L, Sreerekha MV, Mackey D (2007) Defense suppression by virulence effectors of bacterial phytopathogens. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:349–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ellis JG, Rafiqi M, Gan P, Charkrabarti A, Dodds PN (2009) Recent progress in discovery and functional analysis of effector proteins of fungal and oomycete plant pathogens. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:399–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bouwmeester K, Meijer HJG, Govers F (2011) At the frontier: RXLR effectors crossing the Phytophthora-host interface. Front Plant Sci 2:75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Flor HH (1942) Inheritance of pathogenicity in Melampsora lini. Phytopathology 32:653–669Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grant M, Lamb C (2006) Systemic immunity. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9:414–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shah J (2009) Plants under attack: systemic signals in defence. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:459–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Durrant WE, Dong X (2004) Systemic acquired resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 42:185–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Van der Ent S, Van Wees SC, Pieterse CM (2009) Jasmonate signaling in plant interactions with resistance-inducing beneficial microbes. Phytochemistry 70:1581–1588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Xiao W, Liu H, Li Y et al (2009) A rice gene of de novo origin negatively regulates pathogen-induced defense response. PLoS One 4:e4603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hu K, Wang S (2009) Rice disease resistance resources and genetic improvement. In: Zhang Q (ed) Strategies and practice for developing green super rice. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hu K, Qiu D, Shen X, Li X, Wang S (2008) Isolation and manipulation of quantitative trait loci for disease resistance in rice using a candidate gene approach. Mol Plant 1:786–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fu J, Liu H, Li Y et al (2011) Manipulating broad-spectrum disease resistance by suppressing pathogen-induced auxin accumulation in rice. Plant Physiol 155:589–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Deng H, Liu H, Li X, Xiao J, Wang S (2012) A CCCH-type zinc finger nucleic acid-binding protein quantitatively confers resistance against rice bacterial blight disease. Plant Physiol 158:876–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhang Q (2007) Genetics of quality resistance and identification of major resistance genes to rice bacterial blight. In: Zhang Q (ed) Genetics and improvement of resistance to bacterial blight in rice. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yang QZ, Lin F, Feng SJ, Wang L, Pan QH (2009) Recent progress on molecular mapping and cloning of blast resistance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Sci Agric Sin 42:1601–1615Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu Q, Yuan M, Zhou Y, Li X, Xiao J, Wang S (2011) A paralog of the MtN3/saliva family recessively confers race-specific resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae in rice. Plant Cell Environ 34:1958–1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nuque FL, Aguiero VM, Ou SH (1982) Inheritance of resistance to grassy stunt virus in rice. Plant Dis 66:63–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brar DS, Khush GS (1997) Alien introgression in rice. Plant Mol Biol 35:35–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Albar L, Bangratz-Reyser M, Hébrard E, Ndjiondjop MN, Jones M, Ghesquière A (2006) Mutations in the eIF(iso)4G translation initiation factor confer high resistance of rice to Rice yellow mottle virus. Plant J 47:417–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lee JH, Muhsin M, Atienza GA et al (2010) Single nucleotide polymorphisms in a gene for translation initiation factor (eIF4G) of rice (Oryza sativa) associated with resistance to rice tungro spherical virus. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 23:29–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Xu JL, Xue QZ, Luo LJ, Li ZK (2002) Preliminary report on quantitative trait loci mapping of false smut resistance using near-isogenic introgression lines in rice. Acta Agric Zhejiangensis 14:14–19Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pinson SRM, Capdevielle FM, Oard JH (2005) Confirming QTL and finding additional loci conditioning sheath blight resistance in rice using recombinant inbred lines. Crop Sci 45:503–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Maule AJ, Caranta C, Boulton MI (2007) Sources of natural resistance to plant viruses: status and prospects. Mol Plant Pathol 8:223–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liu J, Wang X, Mitchell T et al (2010) Recent progress and understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the rice-Magnaporthe oryzae interaction. Mol Plant Pathol 11:419–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Okuyama Y, Kanzaki H, Abe A et al (2011) A multifaceted genomics approach allows the isolation of the rice Pia-blast resistance gene consisting of two adjacent NBS-LRR protein genes. Plant J 66:467–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yuan B, Zhai C, Wang W et al (2011) The Pik-p resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in rice is mediated by a pair of closely linked CC-NBS-LRR genes. Theor Appl Genet 122:1017–1028PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhai C, Lin F, Dong Z et al (2011) The isolation and characterization of Pik, a rice blast resistance gene which emerged after rice domestication. New Phytol 189:321–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dodds PN, Rathjen JP (2010) Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant-pathogen interactions. Nat Rev Genet 11:539–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jia Y, McAdams SA, Bryan GT, Hershey HP, Valent B (2000) Direct interaction of resistance gene and avirulence gene products confers rice blast resistance. EMBO J 19:4004–4014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ashikawa I, Hayashi N, Yamane H et al (2008) Two adjacent nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class genes are required to confer Pikm-specific rice blast resistance. Genetics 180:2267–2276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lee SK, Song MY, Seo YS et al (2009) Rice Pi5-mediated resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae requires the presence of two coiled-coil-nucleotide- binding-leucine-rich repeat genes. Genetics 181:1627–1638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Liu G, Lu G, Zeng L, Wang GL (2002) Two broad-spectrum blast resistance genes, Pi9(t) and Pi2(t), are physically linked on rice chromosome 6. Mol Genet Genomics 267:472–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Qu S, Liu G, Zhou B et al (2006) The broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi9 encodes an nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat protein and is a member of a multigene family in rice. Genetics 172:1901–1914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zhou B, Qu S, Liu G et al (2006) The eight amino-acid differences within three leucine-rich repeats between Pi2 and Piz-t resistance proteins determine the resistance specificity to Magnaporthe grisea. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19:1216–1228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chen X, Shang J, Chen D et al (2006) A B-lectin receptor kinase gene conferring rice blast resistance. Plant J 46:794–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dardick C, Ronald P (2006) Plant and animal pathogen recognition receptors signal through non-RD kinases. PLoS Pathog 2:e2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ruan HH, Yan CQ, An DR, Liu RH, Chen JP (2008) Identifying and mapping new gene xa32(t) for resistance to bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xoo) from Oryza meyeriana L. Acta Agric Boreali Occident Sin 17:170–174Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Korinsak S, Sriprakhon S, Sirithanya P et al (2009) Identification of microsatellite markers (SSR) linked to a new bacterial blight resistance gene xa33(t) in rice cultivar ‘Ba7’. Maejo Int J Sci Technol 3:235–247Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chen S, Liu X, Zeng L, Ouyang D, Yang J, Zhu X (2011) Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of a novel recessive gene xa34(t) for resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Theor Appl Genet 122:1331–1338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chu Z, Wang S (2007) Isolation, structure, function relationship, and molecular evolution of disease resistance genes. In: Zhang Q (ed) Genetics and improvement of resistance to bacterial blight in rice. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yoshimura S, Yamanouchi U, Katayose Y et al (1998) Expression of Xa1, a bacterial blight resistance gene in rice, is induced by bacterial inoculation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:1663–1668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Song WY, Wang GL, Chen LL et al (1995) A receptor kinase-like protein encoded by the rice disease resistance gene, Xa21. Science 270:1804–1806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sun X, Cao Y, Yang Z et al (2004) Xa26, a gene conferring resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice, encodes an LRR receptor kinase-like protein. Plant J 37:517–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Iyer AS, McCouch SR (2004) The rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa5 encodes a novel form of disease resistance. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 17:1348–1354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jiang GH, Xia ZH, Zhou YL et al (2006) Testifying the rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa5 by genetic complementation and further analyzing xa5 (Xa5) in comparison with its homolog TFIIAgamma1. Mol Genet Genomics 275:354–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chu Z, Yuan M, Yao J et al (2006) Promoter mutations of an essential gene for pollen development result in disease resistance in rice. Genes Dev 20:1250–1255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wu L, Goh ML, Sreekala C, Yin Z (2008) XA27 depends on an amino-terminal signal-anchor-like sequence to localize to the apoplast for resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae. Plant Physiol 148:1497–1509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wang GL, Song WY, Ruan DL, Sideris S, Ronald PC (1996) The cloned gene, Xa21, confers resistance to multiple Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolates in transgenic plants. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 9:850–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lee SW, Han SW, Sririyanum M, Park CJ, Seo YS, Ronald PC (2009) A type I-secreted, sulfated peptide triggers XA21-mediated innate immunity. Science 326:850–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Park CJ, Han SW, Chen X, Ronald PC (2010) Elucidation of XA21-mediated innate immunity. Cell Microbiol 12:1017–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chen X, Chern M, Canlas PE, Ruan D, Jiang C, Ronald PC (2010) An ATPase promotes autophosphorylation of the pattern recognition receptor XA21 and inhibits XA21-mediated immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8029–8034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wang YS, Pi LY, Chen X et al (2006) Rice XA21 binding protein 3 is a ubiquitin ligase required for full Xa21-mediated disease resistance. Plant Cell 18:3635–3646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Park CJ, Peng Y, Chen X et al (2008) Rice XB15, a protein phosphatase 2C, negatively regulates cell death and XA21-mediated innate immunity. PLoS Biol 6:e231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Peng Y, Bartley LE, Chen X et al (2008) OsWRKY62 is a negative regulator of basal and Xa21-mediated defense against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice. Mol Plant 1:446–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Park CJ, Bart R, Chern M, Canlas PE, Bai W, Ronald PC (2010) Overexpression of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP3 regulates XA21-mediated innate immunity in rice. PLoS One 5:e9262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Xiang Y, Cao Y, Xu C, Li X, Wang S (2006) Xa3, conferring resistance for rice bacterial blight and encoding a receptor kinase-like protein, is the same as Xa26. Theor Appl Genet 113:1347–1355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zhao J, Fu J, Li X, Xu C, Wang S (2009) Dissection of the factors affecting development-controlled and race-specific disease resistance conferred by leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase-type R genes in rice. Theor Appl Genet 119:231–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sun X, Cao Y, Wang S (2006) Point mutations with positive selection were a major force during the evolution of a receptor-kinase resistance gene family of rice. Plant Physiol 140:998–1008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Li H, Li X, Xiao J, Wing RA, Wang S (2012) Ortholog alleles at Xa3/Xa26 locus confer conserved race-specific resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae in rice. Mol Plant 5:281–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cao Y, Ding X, Cai M et al (2007) The expression pattern of a rice disease resistance gene Xa3/Xa26 is differentially regulated by the genetic backgrounds and developmental stages that influence its function. Genetics 177:523–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Qiu D, Xiao J, Ding X et al (2007) OsWRKY13 mediates rice disease resistance by regulating defense-related genes in salicylate- and jasmonate-dependent signaling. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:492–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Qiu D, Xiao J, Xie W, Cheng H, Li X, Wang S (2009) Exploring transcriptional signaling mediated by OsWRKY13, a potential regulator of multiple physiological processes in rice. BMC Plant Biol 9:74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tao Z, Liu H, Qiu D et al (2009) A pair of allelic WRKY genes play opposite roles in rice-bacteria interactions. Plant Physiol 151:936–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wang G, Ding X, Yuan M et al (2006) Dual function of rice OsDR8 gene in disease resistance and thiamine accumulation. Plant Mol Biol 60:437–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yuan M, Chu Z, Li X, Xu C, Wang S (2010) The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae overcomes rice defenses by regulating host copper redistribution. Plant Cell 22:3164–3176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Yang B, Sugio A, White FF (2006) Os8N3 is a host disease-susceptibility gene for bacterial blight of rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10503–10508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Yuan M, Chu Z, Li X, Xu C, Wang S (2009) Pathogen-induced expressional loss of function is the key factor of race-specific bacterial resistance conferred by a recessive R gene xa13 in rice. Plant Cell Physiol 50:947–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chen LQ, Hou BH, Lalonde S et al (2010) Sugar transporters for intercellular exchange and nutrition of pathogens. Nature 468:527–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Römer P, Recht S, Straub T et al (2010) Promoter elements of rice susceptibility genes are bound and activated by specific TAL effectors from the bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. New Phytol 187:1048–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yuan T, Li X, Xiao J, Wang S (2011) Characterization of Xanthomonas oryzae-responsive cis-acting element in the promoter of rice race-specific susceptibility gene Xa13. Mol Plant 4:300–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Chen H, Wang S, Zhang Q (2002) New gene for bacterial blight resistance in rice located on chromosome 12 identified from Minghui 63, an elite restorer line. Phytopathology 92:750–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Iyer-Pascuzzi AS, McCouch SR (2007) Recessive resistance genes and the Oryza sativa-Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae pathosystem. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:731–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gu K, Yang B, Tian D et al (2005) R gene expression induced by a type-III effector triggers disease resistance in rice. Nature 435:1122–1125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Römer P, Recht S, Lahaye T (2009) A single plant resistance gene promoter engineered to recognize multiple TAL effectors from disparate pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20526–20531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gu K, Tian D, Qiu C, Yin Z (2009) Transcription activator-like type III effector AvrXa27 depends on OsTFIIAγ5 for the activation of Xa27 transcription in rice that triggers disease resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Mol Plant Pathol 10:829–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kang BC, Yeam I, Jahn MM (2005) Genetics of plant virus resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:581–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Truniger V, Aranda MA (2009) Recessive resistance to plant viruses. Adv Virus Res 75:119–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Robaglia C, Caranta C (2006) Translation initiation factors: a weak link in plant RNA virus infection. Trends Plant Sci 11:40–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kou Y, Li X, Xiao J, Wang S (2010) Identification of genes contributing to quantitative disease resistance in rice. Sci China Life Sci 53:1263–1273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Fukuoka S, Saka N, Koga H et al (2009) Loss of function of a proline-containing protein confers durable disease resistance in rice. Science 325:998–1001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hayashi N, Inoue H, Kato T et al (2010) Durable panicle blast-resistance gene Pb1 encodes an atypical CC-NBS-LRR protein and was generated by acquiring a promoter through local genome duplication. Plant J 64:498–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Yang H, Chu Z, Fu J, Wang S (2008) The major blast resistance QTL rbr2 is an allele of Pib gene. Mol Plant Breed 6:213–219Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Manosalva PM, Davidson RM, Liu B et al (2009) A germin-like protein gene family functions as a complex quantitative trait locus conferring broad-spectrum disease resistance in rice. Plant Physiol 149:286–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Chern M, Canlas PE, Fitzgerald HA, Ronald PC (2005) Rice NRR, a negative regulator of disease resistance, interacts with Arabidopsis NPR1 and rice NH1. Plant J 43:623–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ding X, Cao Y, Huang L et al (2008) Activation of the indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3-8 suppresses expansin expression and promotes salicylate- and jasmonate-independent basal immunity in rice. Plant Cell 20:228–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Domingo C, Andrés F, Tharreau D, Iglesias DJ, Talón M (2009) Constitutive expression of OsGH3.1 reduces auxin content and enhances defense response and resistance to a fungal pathogen in rice. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 22:201–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Asai T, Tena G, Plotnikova J et al (2002) MAP kinase signalling cascade in Arabidopsis innate immunity. Nature 415:977–983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pitzschke A, Schikora A, Hirt H (2009) MAPK cascade signalling networks in plant defence. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:421–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dong X (2004) NPR1, all things considered. Curr Opin Plant Biol 7:547–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chern M, Fitzgerald HA, Canlas PE, Navarre DA, Ronald PC (2005) Overexpression of a rice NPR1 homolog leads to constitutive activation of defense response and hypersensitivity to light. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:511–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Yuan B, Shen X, Li X, Xu C, Wang S (2007) Mitogen-activated protein kinase OsMPK6 negatively regulates rice disease resistance to bacterial pathogens. Planta 226:953–960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Shen X, Yuan B, Liu H, Li X, Xu C, Wang S (2010) Opposite functions of a rice mitogen-activated protein kinase during the process of resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae. Plant J 64:86–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Grant MR, Jones JDG (2009) Hormone (dis)harmony moulds plant heath and disease. Science 324:750–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Santner A, Estelle M (2009) Recent advances and emerging trends in plant hormone signalling. Nature 459:1071–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Bari R, Jones JD (2009) Role of plant hormones in plant defence responses. Plant Mol Biol 69:473–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Qiu D, Xiao J, Xie W et al (2008) Rice gene network inferred from expression profiling of plants overexpressing OsWRKY13, a positive regulator of disease resistance. Mol Plant 1:538–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Liu H, Li X, Xiao J, Wang S (2012) A convenient method for simultaneous quantification of multiple phytohormones and metabolites: application in study of rice-bacterium interaction. Plant Methods 8:2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mei C, Qi M, Sheng G, Yang Y (2006) Inducible overexpression of a rice allene oxide synthase gene increases the endogenous jasmonic acid level, PR gene expression, and host resistance to fungal infection. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19:1127–1137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Iwai T, Miyasaka A, Seo S, Ohashi Y (2006) Contribution of ethylene biosynthesis for resistance to blast fungus infection in young rice plants. Plant Physiol 142:1202–1215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Shen X, Liu H, Yuan B, Li X, Xu C, Wang S (2011) OsEDR1 negatively regulates rice bacterial resistance via activation of ethylene biosynthesis. Plant Cell Environ 34:179–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Fu J, Wang S (2011) Insights into auxin signaling in plant-pathogen interactions. Front Plant Sci 2:74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ton J, Flors V, Mauch-Mani B (2009) The multifaceted role of ABA in disease resistance. Trends Plant Sci 14:310–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Koga H, Dohi K, Mori M (2005) Abscisic acid and low temperatures suppress the whole plant-specific resistance reaction of rice plants to the infection of Magnaporthe grisea. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 65:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jiang CJ, Shimono M, Sugano S et al (2010) Abscisic acid interacts antagonistically with salicylic acid signaling pathway in rice-Magnaporthe grisea interaction. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 23:791–798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Yang DL, Li Q, Deng YW et al (2008) Altered disease development in the eui mutants and Eui overexpressors indicates that gibberellins negatively regulate rice basal disease resistance. Mol Plant 1:528–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Zhu S, Gao F, Cao X et al (2005) The rice dwarf virus P2 protein interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases in vivo, leading to reduced biosynthesis of gibberellins and rice dwarf symptoms. Plant Physiol 139:1935–1945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Jiang Y, Cai Z, Xie W, Long T, Yu H, Zhang Q (2012) Rice functional genomics research: progress and implications for crop genetic improvement. Biotechnol Adv 30:1059–1070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cottyn B, Mew T (2004) Bacterial blight of rice. In: Goodman RM (ed) Encyclopedia of plant and crop science. Taylor & Francis, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kishimoto K, Kouzai Y, Kaku H, Shibuya N, Minami E, Nishizawa Y (2010) Perception of the chitin oligosaccharides contributes to disease resistance to blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in rice. Plant J 64:343–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic ImprovementNational Center of Plant Gene Research, Huazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations