Advertisement

Olive Oil Refining Process

Chapter

Abstract

Not all olive oil production is classified by the categories of extra virgin and virgin olive oils, which can be consumed directly. The refining process allows the elimination of color, odor, or flavor of those oils that are unacceptable to consumers or to remove chemical compounds that might be toxic or have bad influence on the olive oil stability.

This chapter describes the different steps in the refining process, along with quality control measures of the whole process. The modifications of some of the most significant olive oil compounds resulting from the refining process are described in detail. Finally, the recovery and possible alternative uses for the byproducts of the refining process are discussed.

Keywords

Refining Process Molecular Distillation Bleaching Earth Physical Refining Deodorization Distillate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abadlla AEM (1999) Antioxidative effect of olive oil deodorizer distillate on frying oil and quality of potato chips. Fett/Lipid 101:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alba-Mendoza J, Hidalgo Casado F, Ruíz Gómez Mª A, Martinez Román F, Moyano Pérez MJ, Cert-Ventulá A, Pérez-Camino MC, Ruíz-Méndez MV (1996) Características de los aceites de oliva de primera y segunda centrifugación. Grasas y Aceites 47:163–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amati A, Minguzzi A, Losi G (1969) Bleaching of olive oils I. Variations in some physico-chemical characteristics as a function of operation conditions. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 46:73–79Google Scholar
  4. Amelotti G (1987) Effects of the interesterification for physical refining of some olive oils I. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 64:223–226Google Scholar
  5. Amvrazi EG, Albanis TA (2009) Analytical methods: Pesticide residue assessment in different types of olive oil and preliminary exposure assessment of Greek consumers to the pesticide residues detected. Food Chem 113:253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson D (2005) A primer on oil processing technology. In: Shahidi F (ed) Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products, edible oil and fat products: processing technologies, vol 5, 5th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 1–56Google Scholar
  7. Antonopoulos K, Valet N, Spiratos D, Siragakis G (2006) Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing. Grasas Aceites 57:56–67Google Scholar
  8. Belchen S (1999) Deodorization principles: Stripping efficiency in cross-flow and counter current operations. Inform 10:245–255Google Scholar
  9. Bockisch M (1998) Oil purification. In: Bockisch M (ed) Fats and oils handbook. AOCS Press, Champaign (Ill), pp 613–626Google Scholar
  10. Bondioli P, Mariani C, Lanzani A, Fedeli E, Mossa A, Muller A (1992) Lampante olive oil refining with supercritical carbon dioxide. J Am Oil Chem Soc 69:477–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bondioli P, Mariani C, Lanzani A, Fedeli E, Muller A (1993) Squalene recovery from olive oil deodorizer distillates. J Am Oil Chem Soc 70:763–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bortolomeazzi R, Zan M, Pizzale L, Conte LS (2000) Identification of new steroidal hydrocarbons in refined oils and the role of hydroxy sterols as possible precursors. J Agric Food Chem 48:1101–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bozoglan E, Hepbasli A (2010) Performance improvements for olive oil refining plants. Int J Energy Res 34:476–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brenes M, Romero C, García A, Hidalgo FJ, Ruiz-Méndez MV (2004) Phenolic compounds in olive oils intended for refining: formation of 4-ethylphenol during olive paste storage. J Agric Food Chem 52:8177–8181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cerretani L, Bendini A, Barbieri S, Lercker G (2008) Preliminary observations on the change of some chemical characteristics of virgin olive oils subjected to a soft deodorization process. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 85:75–82Google Scholar
  16. Cert A, Lanzón A, Carelli A, Albi T, Amelotti G (1994) Formation of stigmasta-3,5-diene in vegetable oils. Food Chem 49:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ciftci ON, Ciftci D, Jenhab E (2012) Potential applications of green technologies. In: Boskou D (ed) Olive oil industry. Olive oil - constituents, quality, health properties and bioconversions. InTech - Open Access Company, Rijeka (Croatia), pp 293–307Google Scholar
  18. Cook R (2000) Safety. In: Hamm W, Hamilton RJ (eds) Edible oil processing. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, pp 219–243Google Scholar
  19. Coutinho CM, Chiu MC, Basso RC, Ribeiro AP, Gonçalves L, Viotto LA (2009) State of art of the application of membrane technology to vegetable oils: a review. Food Res Int 42:536–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. De Duijn G (2008) Industrial experiences with pesticide removal during edible oil refining. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110:982–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Greyt W, Kellens M (2000) Refining practice. In: Hamm W, Hamilton RJ (eds) Edible oil processing. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, pp 90–105Google Scholar
  22. De Greyt W, Kellens M (2005) Deodorization. In: Shahidi F (ed) Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products, edible oil and fat products: processing technologies, vol 5, 6th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 352–357Google Scholar
  23. Decap P, Braipson-Danthine S, Vanbrabant B, de Greyt W, Deroanne C (2004) Comparison of steam and nitrogen in the physical deacidification of soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 81:611–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dijkstra AJ (1998) Degumming revisited. Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides 5:367–370Google Scholar
  25. Dijkstra AJ, Van Opstal M (1989) The total degumming process. J Am Oil Chem Soc 66:1002–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. European Communities (EC) (2011) Official J Comm European Communities. Regulation nº 61/2011, L 23, 27 Jan 2011Google Scholar
  27. Fernandes P, Cabral JMS (2007) Phytosterols: applications and recovery methods. Bioresour Technol 98:2335–2350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gandul B, Roca M, Mínguez M (1999) Chlorophyll and carotenoid pattern in virgin olive oil. Adulteration control. In: Minguez-Mosquera MI, Jaren-Galan M, Hornero-Mendez H (eds) Proceeding of the 1st international congress on pigments in food technology (PFT), Sevilla, PFT Press, pp 381–386. ISBN 8469901850Google Scholar
  29. García A, Ruiz-Méndez MV, Romero Barranco C, Brenes M (2006) Effect of refining on the phenolic composition of crude olive oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 83:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. García A, Brenes M, Dobarganes MC, Romero-Barranco C, Ruiz-Méndez MV (2008) Enrichment of pomace olive oil in triterpenic acids during storage of alpeorujo olive paste. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110:1136–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gomes T, Capornio F (1997) Evaluation of the state of oxidation of crude olive-pomace oils. Influence of olive pomace drying and oil extraction with solvent. J Agric Food Chem 45:1381–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gomes T, Caponio F (2001) Possibility of improving the quality characteristics of olive-pomace oil and enhancing its differentiation from refined olive-pomace oil. J Sci Food Agric 81:62–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gomes T, Capornio F (1998) Evaluation of the state of oxidation of crude olive-pomace oils. Influence of the refining process. J Agric Food Chem 46:1137–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goncalves M, Vasconcelos AMP, Gomes-de-Azevedo EJS, Chaves-das-Neves HJ, Nunes-da-Ponte M (1991) On the application of supercritical fluid extraction to the deacidification of olive oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 68:474–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gonzalez-Pradas E, Villafranca-Sánchez M, Gallego-Campo A (1993) Influence of the physical-chemistry properties of an acid activated bentonite in the bleaching of olive oil. J Chem Tech Biotechnol 57:213–216Google Scholar
  36. Gozek K, Yucel U, Ilim M, Aysal P, Tuncbilek AS (1999) 14C-dimethoate residues in olive oil during oil processing. J Environ Sci Health B 34:413–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gracian J, Mancha M (1971) Fenómenos de transesterificación durante el calentamiento de aceites de oliva y de orujo y su influencia en la alteración de la estructura glicerídica. Grasas Aceites 22:30–39Google Scholar
  38. Grandgirard A, Sebedio JL, Fleury J (1984) Geometrical isomerization of linolenic acid during heat treatment of vegetable oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 61:1563–1568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grompone MA (1991) El índice de anisidina como medida del deterioro latente de un material graso. Grasas y Aceites 42:8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hafidi A, Pioch D, Ajana H (2005) Effects of a membrane-based soft purification process on olive oil quality. Food Chemistry 92(4):607–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hendrix B (1990) Neutralization. In: Erickson DR (ed) Edible fats and oils processing: basic principles and modern practices. AOCS Press, Champaign, pp 94–100Google Scholar
  42. Huesa J, Dobarganes MC (1990) Patente ES 2.013.206. Chem Abstr 113:1744–1764Google Scholar
  43. Ibañez E, Palacios J, Señorans FJ, Santa-Maria G, Tabera J, Reglero G (2000) Isolation and separation of tocopherols from olive by-products with supercritical fluids. J Am Oil Chem Soc 77:187–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kawashima A, Watanabe S, Iwakiri R, Honda K (2009) Removal of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs from fish oil by countercurrent supercritical CO2 extraction and activated carbon treatment. Chemosphere 75:788–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kocchar SP (1983) Influence of processing on sterols of edible oils. Prog Lipid Res 22:161–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kock J, de Greyt W, Gibon V, Kellens M (2005) Développements récents en matières de raffinage et de modifications: élimination des contaminants dans les huiles alimentaires et réduction du taux d’acides gras trans. OCL 12:378–384Google Scholar
  47. Lanzani A, Bondioli P, Allevi C, Baretteau P, Bertini CG (1988) Un impianto di distillazione con caratteristiche innovative nella tecnología di raffinazione di olio di sansa. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 65:439–443Google Scholar
  48. Lanzani A, Bondioli P, Fedeli E (1993) Quality in fats and oils production. Riv Ital Sost Grasse 70:1–5Google Scholar
  49. Lanzón A, Albi T, Gracián J (1987) Alteraciones regristradas en los componentes alcohólicos del insaponificable del aceite de oliva en el proceso de refinación. Primeros ensayos. Grasas y Aceites 38:203–209Google Scholar
  50. Lanzon A, Cert A, Albi T (1989) Detección de la presencia de aceite de oliva refinado en el aceite de oliva virgen. Grasas Aceites 40:385–389Google Scholar
  51. Lanzón A, Albi T, Cert A, Graciani J (1994) The hydrocarbon fraction of virgin olive oil and changes resulting from refining. J Am Oil Chem Soc 71:285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. León-Camacho M, Ruiz-Méndez MV, Graciani-Constante E (1999) Isomerisation of fatty acids during deodorization/physical refining stripping with nitrogen. Fett/Lipid 101:290–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. León-Camacho M, Ruiz-Méndez MV, Graciani-Constante E (2001) Kinetics of the cis-trans isomerisationof linoleic acid in the deodorization and/or physical refining of edible fats. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 102:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. León-Camacho M, Viera-Alcaide I, Ruiz-Méndez MV (2003) Elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by bleaching of olive pomace oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 105:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mag TK (1990) Bleaching: theory and practice. In: Erickson DR (ed) Edible fats and oils processing: basic principles and modern practices. AOCS Press, Champaign, pp 107–116Google Scholar
  56. MARM (2010) Ministerio de Agricultura Rural y Marino de España Observatorio del consumo y la distribución alimentaria. Informe anual. 2009Google Scholar
  57. Márquez-Ruiz G, Ruiz-Méndez MV, Velasco J, Dobarganes MC (2010) Preventing oxidation during frying of foods. In: Decker E, Elias R, McClements DJ (eds) Oxidation in foods and beverages and antioxidant applications, vol 2. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, pp 239–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Martínez Nieto L, Hodaifa G, Casanova MS (2009) Elimination of pesticide residues from virgin olive oil by ultraviolet light: preliminary results. J Hazard Mater 168:555–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mastrobattista G, Gabriele F (1992) Valutazione di una nuova tecnica di reffinazione su oli di sansa. Ind Aliment 31:447–449Google Scholar
  60. Miettinen TA, Gylling H (1997) Sitostanol-ester margarines. In: Yalpani M (ed) New technologies for healthy foods and nutraceuticals. ATL Press Inc, Shrewsburry, pp 71–82Google Scholar
  61. Nergiz C (1993) The effect of refining processes on the total polyphenol and 1 2-diphenol content of olive oil. Int J Food Sci Technol 28:461–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ong JTL (1980) Die Notwendigkeit neue Qualität-sanforderungen für rohes Sojaöl einzuführen. Fette Seifen Anstrichm 82:169–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ouyan H, Daun S, Chang SS, Ho CT (1980) Formation of carbonyl compounds from β-carotene during palm oil deodorization. J Food Sci 45:1214–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Paganuzzi V, Iorgi F, Malerba A (1997) Influence of ageing and temperature on some parameters provided by EEC regulation N. 2568/91 on olive oil. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 74:231–239Google Scholar
  65. Pasqualone A, Catalano M (2000) Free and total sterols in olive oils. Effects of neutralization. Grasas Aceites 51:180–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Passaloglou-Emmanouilidou S (1990) A comparative study of UV spectrophotometric methods for detection of olive oil adulteration by refined oils. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 191:132–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pérez-Camino MC, Cert A (1999) Quantitative determination of hydroxy pentacyclic triterpenic acids in vegetable oils. J Agric Food Chem 47:1558–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pérez-Camino MC, Ruiz-Méndez MV, Márquez-Ruiz G, Dobarganes MC (1993) Aceites de oliva vírgenes y refinados: diferencias en componentes menores glicerídicos. Grasas Aceites 44:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pérez-Camino MC, Cert A, Romero-Segura A, Cert-Trujillo R, Moreda W (2008) Alkyl esters of fatty acids a useful tool to detect soft deodorized olive oils. J Agric Food Chem 56:6740–6744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pickard MD, Jones TJ, Tyler RT (1996) By-products utilization. In: Shahidi F (ed) Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products, edible oil and fat products: processing technologies, vol 4. Wiley, New York, pp 603–630Google Scholar
  71. Podmore J (1992) Controlling quality in an edible oil refinery. Inform 3:317–323Google Scholar
  72. Prieto Gonzalez MM, Bada JC, Graciani E (2007) Temperature effects on the deacidification of mixtures of sunflower oil and oleic acid. J Am Oil Chem Soc 84:473–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Prieto-Soler JM, Ramos-Ayerbe F (1972) Refinación de aceites. Estudio de las determinaciones de las pérdidas en neutralización y sus correspondencias con las pérdidas en la industria. Grasas Aceites 6:419–427Google Scholar
  74. Roden A, Ullyot G (1984) Quality control in edible oil processing. J Am Oil Chem Soc 61:1109–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ruiz-Méndez MV (2003) Refinación de aceite de oliva y de orujo de aceituna. In: Aparicio R, Harwood J (eds) Manual del Aceite de Oliva. Vicente Ediciones, Madrid, pp 563–595Google Scholar
  76. Ruiz-Méndez MV, Ramos-Hinojosa AE (2003) Fatty acid esters with short-chain alcohols in two-phase olive pomace oils. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 105:346–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ruiz-Méndez MV, Márquez-Ruiz G, Dobarganes MC (1995) Determinación cuantitativa de componentes mayoritarios presentes en los destilados obtenidos en la desodorización de aceites y grasas. Grasas Aceites 46:21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ruiz-Méndez MV, Márquez-Ruiz G, Dobarganes MC (1996) Comparative performance of steam and nitrogen as stripping gas in physical refining of edible oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 73:1641–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ruiz-Mendez MV, Garrido-Fernández A, Rodríguez-Berbel FC, Graciani-Constante E (1996) Relationship among the variables involved in the physical refining of olive oil using nitrogen as stripping gas. Fett/Lipid 98:121–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ruiz-Méndez MV, Márquez-Ruiz G, Dobarganes MC (1997) Relationships between quality of crude and refined edible oils based on quantitation of minor glyceridic compounds. Food Chem 60:549–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ruiz-Méndez MV, Pérez I, Jiménez-Márquez A, Uceda-Ojeda M (2005) Elimination of pesticides in olive oil by refining using bleaching and deodorization. Food Addit Contam 22:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ruiz-Méndez MV, Dobarganes MC, Sanchez-Moral P (2010) Edible olive pomace oil concentrated in triterpenic acids, procedure of physical refining utilised for obtainment thereof and recovery of functional components present in the crude oil. Patent WO/2010/010219Google Scholar
  83. Sanchez-Moral P, Ruiz-Méndez MV (2006) Production of pomace olive oil. Grasas Aceites 57:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sanelli B (1979) Variations of the UV spectrophotometric indices and removal of colour in refined olive oil. Freundlich equation of adsorption. III. Removal of coloured pigments. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 57:295–300Google Scholar
  85. Serani A, Piacenti D, Staiano G (2001) Identification of deodorized oils in virgin olive oils. Note 2. Kinetics of diacylglycerols isomerization in virgin olive oils. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 78:525–528Google Scholar
  86. Serra-Masía A, Martinez MJ (1981) Obtención de escualeno de los destilados de desodorización del aceite de oliva. Grasas Aceites 32:313–317Google Scholar
  87. Servege A (1983) Difficulties in physical refining of olive oil due to presence of triterpene oleanolic acid. J Am Oil Chem Soc 60:584–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sjöberg P (1991) Deodorization technology. Lipid Technol 3:52–57Google Scholar
  89. Skilourakis A, Psillakis E (2007) Endocrine disrupting compounds in olive oil. In: Ho P, Cortez Vieira MM (eds) Case studies in food safety and environmental health (Integrating safety and environmental knowledge into food studies towards european sustainable development) volume 6. Part I. Springer, Boston, pp 21–27Google Scholar
  90. Szabo SD (1959) Hydrolysis during deodorization of fatty oils. Catalytic action of fatty acids. J Am Oil Chem Soc 36:143–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tatum J, Chow CK (2000) Effects of processing and storage on fatty acids in edible oils. In: Chow CK (ed) Fatty acids in foods and their health implications. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp 411–426Google Scholar
  92. Temelli F (2009) Perspectives on supercritical fluid processing of fats and oils. J Supercritical Fluids 47:583–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Thomopoulos CD, Tzía C (1993) The effect of degumming by hydration on the purification of high acidity solvent extracted olive oil. Grasas Aceites 44:259–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tubaileh RM, Garrido-Fernández A, Ruiz Méndez MV, León-Camacho M, Graciani-Constante E (2002) Effects of deodorization/physical refining variables in wax and fatty alcohols content of refined olive oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 79:971–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Verleyen T, Verhe R, Huyghebaert A, Dewettinck K, Greyt W (2001) Identification of alpha-tocopherol oxidation products in triolein at elevated temperatures. J Agric Food Chem 49:1508–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vioque E, Maza MP (1973) Glicolípidos de la aceituna. Grasas y Aceites 24:226–235Google Scholar
  97. Welsh WA, Bogdanor JM, Toeneboehn G (1989) Silica refining of oils and fats. In: Erickson DR (ed) Edible fats and oils processing: basic principles and modern practices. AOCS Press, Champaign, pp 189–202Google Scholar
  98. Zamora R, Olmo C, Navarro JR, Hidalgo FJ (2004) Contribution of phospholipid pyrrolization to the color reversion produced during deodorization of poorly degummed vegetable oils. J Agric Food Chem 52:4166–4171CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de la Grasa. CSIC.SevillaSpain

Personalised recommendations