High-Field Intraoperative MR-Guided Neurosurgery
The story of intraoperative MR (iMR)-guided neurosurgery began in the 1990s with the implementation of the first such site at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, MA [1, 2]. The Brigham installed the first truly open architecture magnetic resonance (MR) scanner, in which a patient’s head was directly accessible to a neurosurgeon at all times during the procedure. Although somewhat physically confining, for the first time, this breakthrough approach allowed neurosurgeons to undertake brain tumor removal under the dual observations of the surgeon’s eyes through an operating microscope and the radiologist’s eyes through the MR scanner’s images. Thus, in addition to the surface imaging afforded by direct visual inspection, surgeons could now see beyond the limits of their surgical field, and for the first time, they could visualize the completeness or, as was soon discovered, the incompleteness of their tumor resection.
KeywordsTitanium Catheter Marketing Flare Hydrocephalus
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