Views in the 1930s

  • Joseph D. Robinson
Part of the People and Ideas Series book series (PEOPL)


As background for later developments, this chapter will describe some of the reigning views from the latter 1930s concerning cells, membranes, proteins, and metabolic systems. A brief account of some of the methods then available is also included.


Hypotonic Medium Hydrated Surface Hypertonic Medium Lipid Tail Isotonic Medium 
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Notes to Chapter 2

  1. 1.
    For relevant historical accounts see Baker (1948, 1949, 1952); Dayson (1989); Jacobs (1962); Kleinzeller (1995); and Smith (1962).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smith (1962).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gorter and Grendel (1925).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bar et al. (1966) concluded that sufficient lipid is in red blood cell membranes to form a bilayer, but that Gorter and Grendel both extracted the lipid incompletely and underestimated the surface area.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Danielli (1962) reported that he “did not encounter the work of Gorter and Grendel until 1939” (p. 1165) but later recalled seeing the Gorter and Grendel paper in 1935 (Danielli, 1982).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Although the model appears in Danielli and Dayson (1935), it is in one of four sections stated in a footnote to be the work “of JFD alone.”Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Danielli and Harvey (1935).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bernal and Crowfoot (1934).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Danielli and Harvey (1935). Nevertheless, the interfacial tension of the lipid/ protein system increased over time (see their Fig. 1).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Danielli and Dayson (1935); Harvey and Danielli (1938).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Höber (1936), p. 367. Collander (1937) proposed a sieve mechanism in lipoidal membranes.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Danielli (1936).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ibid., p. 402.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Danielli (1938).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schmitt et al. (1936).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Parpart and Dziemian (1940), p. 22.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harvey and Danielli (1938), p. 335.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    For relevant historical accounts see Fruton (1972); Leicester (1974); Srinivasan et al. (1979); and Teich (1992).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bernal and Crowfoot (1934), p. 795.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mirsky and Pauling (1936), p. 442.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bodansky (1938), p. 101.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ibid., p. 83.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ibid., pp. 83–84.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kerr (1937).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Manery and Hastings (1939).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Krogh (1946), p. 163.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Peters and Van Slyke (1931), pp. 758–759.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    For relevant historical accounts see Florkin (1972); Fruton (1972); Kohler (1973); Leicester (1974); and Teich (1992).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bodansky (1938), p. 126.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kohler (1973).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    F. Hofmeister (1901), quoted in Kohler (1973), p. 185.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Best and Taylor (1939), p. 989.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fruton (1972), p. 373.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    See Chapter 1 for a description of redox reactions in terms of electron gain and loss. Redox reactions of organic molecules often involve gain and loss of a hydrogen atom,i.e., an electron plus H. Thus, oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate involves loss of two electrons plus two H+, with the incorporation of two electrons plus one H+ into NAD+ to form NADH (with one H+ left over).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Translated in Kalckar (1969), p. 225. The implication is that redox reactions along the respiratory chain, as well as the initial dehydrogenation, are coupled to ATP formation.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Engelhardt and Ljubimowa (1939). Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    For example, measuring Na+ by the procedure of Ball and Sadusk (1936) involved the following procedures: 1. Heat the sample with sulfuric acid overnight at 600°; 2. Add to the ash one drop of 2 N sulfuric acid and transfer that residue to a new tube with two 0.5 mL portions of water; 3. Add 10 mL of uranyl zinc acetate reagent and stir vigorously for 10 minutes; 4. Centrifuge this mixture and then decant the supernatant fluid, allowing the inverted tube to drain for 5 minutes; 5. Add to the residue 10 mL of glacial acetic acid and then stir; 6. Centrifuge and then decant again; 7. Dissolve the residue in 15 mL of 2 N sulfuric acid and transfer to a “Jones reductor” (a column filled with amalgamated zinc, which is prepared from mercury, nitric acid, and granulated zinc and then washed with sulfuric acid), drawing it through the reductor in 45 seconds; 8. Flush the reductor successively with four 20-mL portions of 2 N sulfuric acid at a rate of 40 mL/minute; 9. Draw air through the solution for 5 minutes; 10. Add 5 mL of a 5% ferric sulfate solution, then 5 mL of 85% phosphoric acid, and finally five drops of barium diphenylaminesulfonate indicator, swirling the flask after each addition; 11. Titrate with 0.025 N potassium dichromate until a violet color persists for at least 30 seconds.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Physiological Society 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph D. Robinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyState University of New York Health Science CenterSyracuseUSA

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