Advertisement

Exergy Analysis and Environmental Impact Assessment of Using Various Refrigerants for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Thermal Management Systems

  • Halil S. HamutEmail author
  • Ibrahim Dincer
  • Greg F. Naterer
Chapter

Abstract

Thermal management systems (TMSs) are one of the key components of hybrid electric vehicles in terms of their impact on vehicle efficiency and performance, as well as the vehicle’s environmental footprint. In this chapter, an environmental assessment of hybrid electric vehicle thermal management systems is developed with respect to various refrigerants such as R134a, R600 (butane), R600a (isobutane), R1234yf (tetrafluoropropene) and dimethyl ether (DME). The energetic and exergetic COPs along with exergy destruction rates are analyzed for the TMS using each refrigerant. Also, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (in g CO2-eq/kWh) during operation and the sustainability index are determined under various system parameters, operating conditions, as well as carbon dioxide scenarios. Based on the results, all selected TMSs are determined to have higher energetic and exergetic COPs along with lower environmental impact than the baseline TMS (which uses R134a) except for the TMS using R1234yf. The highest efficiency and lowest environmental impact are achieved by TMS using DME with higher energetic and exergetic COPs (by 7.9 and 8.2 %, respectively) and lower GHG emissions (by 8.3 %) and higher sustainability index (by 3.3 %) than the baseline TMS.

Keywords

Environmental assessment Hybrid electric vehicle Thermal management Alternative refrigerants Thermal management system Exergy analysis Refrigerants Hybrid electric vehicle Vehicle efficiency Energetic COP Exergetic COP Exergy destruction Greenhouse gas Sustainability index 

Nomenclature

D

Diameter (m)

\( \dot{E} \)x

Exergy rate (kW)

f

Friction factor

h

Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg)

\( \bar{h} \)

Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

k

Thermal conductivity (W/m °C)

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow rate (kg/s or L/min)

P

Pressure (kg/m s2)

Pr

Prandtl number

\( \dot{Q} \)

Heat transfer rate (kW)

Re

Reynolds number

s

Specific entropy (kJ/kg K)

T

Temperature (K or °C)

\( {T_0} \)

Ambient temperature (K or °C)

U

Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

\( \dot{W} \)

Work rate or power (kW)

Greek Symbols

Δ

Change in variable

\( \psi \)

Exergy efficiency

Subscripts

act

Actual

bat

Battery

cool

Coolant

c, cond

Condenser

ch

Chiller

comp

Compressor

crit

Critical

D

Destruction

en

Energy

ex

Exergy

e, evap

Evaporator

g

Gas

ref

Refrigerant

s

Isentropic

txv

Thermal expansion valve

wg

Water/glycol mix

Acronyms

AACS

Automotive air conditioning system

A/C

Air conditioning

AC

Alternative current

DC

Direct current

CFC

Chlorofluorocarbon

CV

Conventional vehicle

COP

Coefficients of performance

DME

Dimethyl ether

EES

Engineering equation solver

EV

Electric vehicle

GHG

Greenhouse gas

GWP

Global warming potential

HEV

Hybrid electric vehicle

ICE

Internal combustion engine

LCA

Life cycle assessment

NBP

Normal boiling point

ODP

Ozone depleting potential

PCM

Phase change material

PHEV

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

TMS

Thermal management system

TXV

Thermal expansion valve

VOC

Volatile organic compound

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support from Automotive Partnerships Canada (APC) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Samaras C, Meisterling K (2008) Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy. Environ Sci Technol 42:3170–3176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koban M (2009) HFO-1234yf low GWP refrigerant LCCP analysis. In: Proceedings of SAE world congress, Detroit, MI, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Faiz A, Weaver CS, Walsh MP (1996) Air pollution from motor vehicles: standards and technologies for controlling emissions. World Bank Publications, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nelson RF (2000) Power requirements for batteries in hybrid electric vehicles. J Power Sources 91:2–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doucette RT, McCulloch MD (2001) Modeling the prospects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to reduce CO2 emissions. Appl Energy 88:2315–2323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bradley TH, Frank AA (2009) Design, demonstrations and sustainability impact assessments for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13:115–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shiau CN, Samaras C, Hauffe R, Michalek JJ (2009) Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles. Energy Policy 37:2653–2663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ross M (1994) Automobile fuel consumption and emissions: effects of vehicle and driving characteristics. Annu Rev Environ Resour 19:75–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    National Household Travel Survey Data (2001) U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. http://nhts.ornl.gov/download.shtml#2001 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    EIA (2008a) Annual energy review 2007. US Department of Energy. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/elect.htmlS Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schmidt WP, Dahlqvist E, Finkbeiner M, Krinke S, Lazzari S, Oschmann D, Pichon S, Thiel C (2004) Life cycle assessment of lightweight and end-of-life scenarios for generic compact class passenger vehicles. Int J Life Cycle Asses 9:405–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yeh S (2009) Reducing long-term transportation emissions: electricity as a low carbon fuel. Presentation at the EPRI conference, Long Beach, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wood E, Alexander M, Bradley TH (2011) Investigation of battery end-of-life conditions for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. J Power Sources 196:5147–5154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Matheys J, Timmermans J-M, Van Mierlo J, Meyer S, Van den Bossche P (2009) Comparison of the environmental impact of 5 electric vehicle battery technologies using LCA. Int J Sustain Manuf 1:318–329Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Majeau-Bettez G, Hawkins TR, Strømman AH (2011) Life cycle environmental assessment of lithium-ion and nickel metal hydride batteries for plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle. Environ Sci Technol 45:4548–4554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bossche PV, Vergels F, Mierlo JV, Matheys J, Autenboer WV (2006) SUBAT: an assessment of sustainable battery technology. J Power Sources 162:913–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pesaran AA (2002) Battery thermal models for hybrid vehicle simulations. J Power Sources 110:377–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pesaran AA, Vlahinos A, Stuart T (2003) Cooling and preheating of batteries in hybrid electric vehicles. 6th ASME-JSME thermal engineering conference, HawaiiGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Noboru S (2001) Thermal behavior analysis of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. J Power Sources 99:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pesaran AA, Kim G, Keyser M (2009) Integration issues of cells into battery packs for plug-in and hybrid electric vehicle. EVS 24 Stavanger, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kuper Ch, Hoh M, Houchin-Miller G, Fuhr J (2009) Thermal management of hybrid vehicle battery system. 24th International battery, hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicle conference and exhibition, Stavanger, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    GM-Volt LLC website. (2010) The Chevrolet volt cooling/heating systems explained. http://gm-volt.com/2010/12/09/the-chevrolet-volt-coolingheating-systems-explained. Accessed 10 Oct 2012Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pesaran AA (2001) Battery thermal management in EVs and HEVs: issues and solutions. Advanced automotive battery conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, USAGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Behr GmbH & Co. KG, Press Official Website. (2009) Technical Press Day. http://www.behrgroup.com/Internet/behrcms_eng.nsf. Accessed 01 Oct 2012Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pesaran AA, Burch S, Keyser M (1999) An approach for designing thermal management systems for electric and hybrid vehicle battery packs. The Fourth Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference and Exhibition, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Khateeb SA, Farid MM, Selman JR, Al-Hallaj S (2004) Design and simulation of a lithium-ion battery with a phase change material thermal management system for an electric scooter. J Power Sources 128:292–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kizilel R, Lateefa A, Sabbah R, Farid MM, Selman JR, Al-Hallaj S (2008) Passive control of temperature excursion and uniformity in high-energy Li-ion battery packs at high current and ambient temperature. J Power Sources 183:370–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sabbah R, Kizilel R, Selman JR, Al-Hallaj S (2008) Passive thermal management system for plug-in hybrid and comparison with active cooling: limitation of temperature rise and uniformity of temperature distribution. ECS Trans 13:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jabardo JMS, Mamani WG, Ianekka MR (2002) Modeling and experimental evaluation of an automotive air conditioning system with a variable capacity compressor. Int J Refrig 25:1157–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang SW, Gu J, Dickson T, Dexter T, McGregor I (2005) Vapor quality and performance of an automotive air conditioning system. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 30:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    European Union (2006) Directive 2006/40/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006. OJEU 161(12):1–4Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Granrdy E (2001) Hydrocarbons as refrigerants—an overview. Int J Refrig 24:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wongwises S, Kamboon A, Orachon B (2006) Experimental investigation of hydrocarbon mixtures to replace HFC-134a in an automotive air conditioning system. Energy Convers Manage 47:1644–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Leck TJ (2009) Evaluation of HFO-1234yf as a potential replacement for R-134a in refrigeration applications. In: The proceedings of the 3rd IIR conference on thermophysical properties and transfer processes of refrigerants, Boulder, COGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dittus SJ, Boelter LMK (1930) Heat Transfer in Automobile Radiators of the Tubular Type. University of California Publications in Engineering 2:443Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Churchill SW, Chu HHS (1975) Correlating equations for laminar and turbulent free convection from a vertical plate. Int J Heat Mass Transf 18:1323–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Raman A (1995) Modelling of condenser, evaporators and refrigeration circuit in automobile air conditioning systems. PhD thesis, University of Valladolid, Vallodolid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yoo SY, Lee DW (2009) Experimental study on performance of automotive air conditioning system using R-152a refrigerant. Int J Automot Technol 10:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Engineering equation solver (2009) version 8.176. F-Chart Software, Box 44042, Madison, WI, USAGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    NIST (1998) NIST thermodynamic and transport properties of refrigerants and refrigerant mixtures-REFPROP Version 6.01. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado, USAGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hamut HS, Dincer I, Naterer GF (2011) Performance assessment of thermal management systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Int J Energy Res. doi: 10.1002/er.1951 Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hamut HS, Dincer I, Naterer GF (2012) Exergy analysis of a TMS (thermal management system) for range extended EVs (electric vehicles). Energy. doi: 10.10.16/j.energy.2011.12.041 Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hepbasli A, Erbay Z, Icier F, Colak N, Hancioglu E (2009) A review of gas engine driven heat pumps (GEHPs) for residential and industrial applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13:85–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lee CG, Cho SW, Hwang Y, Lee JK, Lee BC, Park JS, Jung JS (2007) Effects of nanolubricants on the friction and wear characteristics at thrust slide bearing of scroll compressor. 22nd international congress of refrigeration, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kedzierski MA, Gong M (2009) Effect of CuO nano-lubricant on R134a pool boiling heat transfer. Int J Refrig 32:791–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kumar S, Prevost M, Bugarel R (1989) Exergy analysis of a compression refrigeration system. Heat Recover Syst CHP 9:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Arora A, Kaushik SC (2008) Theoretical analysis of a vapour compression refrigerant system with R502, R404a and R507a. Int J Refrig 31:998–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Reasor P, Aute V, Radermacher R (2010) Refrigerant R1234yf performance comparison investigation. International refrigeration air conditioning conference, Paper 1085Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kumar KS, Rajagopal K (2007) Computational and experimental investigation of low ODP and low GWP HCFC-123 and HC-290 refrigerant mixture alternate to CFC-12. Energy Convers Manage 48:3053–3062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yang C, Maccarthy R (2009) Electricity grid: impacts of plug-in electric vehicle charging. Recent work. Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis, Davis, CAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Halil S. Hamut
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ibrahim Dincer
    • 1
  • Greg F. Naterer
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of TechnologyOshawaCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering and Applied ScienceMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

Personalised recommendations