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Integrated Renewable Energy-Based Systems for Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  • Mehdi Hosseini
  • Ibrahim Dincer
  • Marc A. Rosen
Chapter

Abstract

Efforts to develop systems to mitigate environmental pollution are increasing. Renewable energy resources, e.g., solar, wind, and hydro, provide clean energy with almost no greenhouse gas emissions. However, these forms of energy are intermittent, and the costs of systems utilizing renewable energy for power generation or heating/cooling are often not competitive with conventional systems. Using hybrid systems and recovering waste energy are two ways to enhance the utilization of renewable energy resources. In this chapter, numerous integrated renewable-based energy systems are reviewed, based on a number of previous studies by the present authors. The aims of these systems are to enhance energy management and reduce environmental pollution. The chapter starts with a brief introduction of integrated renewable energy systems and their role in mitigating environmental pollution. The description of some integrated systems for residential and community usage is presented. Moreover, the systems are compared with conventional power generation systems in terms of efficiency and carbon dioxide emission. The results show that although the energy efficiency of the residential photovoltaic-fuel cell system is considerably lower than the conventional power generation systems, they release zero amount of emission into the environment during their operation. Fuel cell-micro gas turbine system integrated with biomass gasification has energy efficiencies around 55 %. This renewable-based energy integrated system produces 741 gram of carbon dioxide per kWh, which is comparable with the emission of fossil power plants.

Keywords

Fuel Cell Wind Turbine Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Exergy Efficiency Renewable Energy Resource 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Nomenclature

ex

Specific exergy, kJ/kg

Ėx

Exergy flow rate, kW

i

Current density, A/cm2

İ

Exergy destruction rate, kW

LHV

Lower heating value, kJ/kg

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow rate, kg/s

n

Reaction coefficient

\( \dot{n} \)

Molar flow rate, kmol/s

N

Number of cells in the SOFC

\( \dot{Q} \)

Heat flow rate, kW

SC

Steam-to-carbon ratio

T

Temperature, °C

\( \dot{W} \)

Electric power, kW

Greek Letters

η

Energy efficiency %

ψ

Exergy efficiency %

γ

Specific heat ratio

Subscripts

0

Ambient or standard condition

a

Air

cell

SOFC cell

ex

Exergy

g

Gas

i

Species

mb

Moist biomass

MGT

Micro gas turbine

DH

District heating heat demand

p

Product gas

Q

Heat

s

Surface or steam

TIT

Turbine inlet temperature

WB

Wet biomass

Superscripts

*

Reference condition

Acronyms

HRSG

Heat recovery steam generator

MGT

Micro gas turbine

SOFC

Solid oxide fuel cell

PV

Photovoltaic

PV-FC

Photovoltaic-fuel cell

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Hosseini
    • 1
  • Ibrahim Dincer
    • 1
  • Marc A. Rosen
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of TechnologyOshawaCanada

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