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BTEX in the Exhaust Emissions of Motor Vehicles

  • Dragan AdamovićEmail author
  • Jovan Dorić
  • Mirjana Vojinović-Miloradov
Chapter

Abstract

Transportation involves the combustion of fossil fuels to produce energy translated into motion. Pollution is created from incomplete carbon reactions, unburned hydrocarbons, or other elements present in the fuel or the air during combustion. These processes produce pollutants of various species, including carbon monoxide, soot, various gaseous and liquid vapour hydrocarbons, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, sulphate and nitrate particulates, and ash and lead. These primary pollutants can, in turn, react in the atmosphere to form ozone, secondary particulates, and other damaging secondary pollutants. Benzene, toluene ethylbenzene, and xylenes, known collectively as the BTEX group, are an important fraction of non-methane hydrocarbons and have been found to be ubiquitous in the urban air. BTEX are known to be toxic and genotoxic and they also actively participate in the photochemical reactions. This chapter presents the results of research in the field of BTEX concentration in the exhaust gases of spark ignition engines under different operating conditions. The aim of this chapter is to obtain a clearer insight into the impact of different engine working parameters on the concentration of BTEX gases. Exhausts have been sampled directly at the tail pipe. Detection and quantification of BTEX concentration levels have been performed by using mobile GC Voyager Photovac equipped with capillary column Supelcowax 10 and photoionisation detector. The results indicate high concentration levels of target compounds, especially in conditions of incomplete combustion simulated by creating hydrocarbon–air-rich mixtures, low engine load, and low revolutions per minute of the experimental motor.

Keywords

Exhaust emissions Global warming BTEX Fossil fuels Motor vehicles Transportation Pollution Carbon reactions Unburned hydrocarbons Carbon monoxide Soot Oxides of sulphur Nitrogen Sulphate Nitrate particulates Ash Lead 

Nomenclature

SOx

Oxides of sulphur

NOx

Oxides of nitrogen

Greek Symbols

λ

Air–fuel ratio

Acronyms

BTEX

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes

ECU

Engine control unit

GC

Gas chromatograph

HC

Hydrocarbons

LOD

Limit of detection

MTBE

Methyl tertiary butyl ether

NMHC

Non-methane hydrocarbons

PID

Photoionisation detector

RPM

Revolutions per minute

SI

Spark ignition

VOC

Volatile organic compound

Notes

Acknowledgement

This research was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia (III 46009, 34014), and the NATO Science for Peace Program (ESP.EAP.SFP 984087).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dragan Adamović
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jovan Dorić
    • 1
  • Mirjana Vojinović-Miloradov
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Technical SciencesUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia

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