Biography

  • Hanns-Christian Gunga

Abstract

Nathan Zuntz was born in Bonn on October 6, 1847 (City Archives, Bonn). His father was the Bonn merchant, Leopold Zuntz. His mother Julie, née Katzenstein, had been born and raised in Kassel.

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Notes

  1. 5.
    Max Johann Sigismund Schultze was born on March 25, 1825, in Freiburg im Breisgau as the son of Karl August Sigismund Schultze (Professor for Anatomy and Physiology in Freiburg im Breisgau, who worked in Greifswald from 1830 onwards). Max Schultze studied medicine at the University of Greifswald, beginning in 1845. In 1849, he graduated as a doctor of medicine; his father had been his counselor. His dissertation was published under the title De arteriarum notione, structura, constitutione chemica et vita. In 1850, he was appointed associate professor. From 1850 to 1854 he acted as prosector for his father at the Anatomical Institute of the University of Greifswald. In October 1854, Max Schultze was offered a position at the University of Halle an der Saale and remained there until 1859. Thereafter, he took an appointment in Bonn where he became the director of the Anatomical Institute. Max Schultze died on January 16, 1874, at the young age of forty-nine. In more than eighty scientific publications, he focused on microscopic-anatomical structures (cf. Hirsch, A.: Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Ärzte aller Zeiten und Völker (Biographical Encyclopaedia of the Most Outstanding Doctors of all Times and Peoples), 5th volume, Urban & Schwarzenberg 1886, pp. 304 et seq.; Bast, T. H.: Max Johann Sigismund Schultze, Ann. Med. Hist. 3 (1931), pp. 166–178).Google Scholar
  2. 8.
    Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger was born on June 7, 1829, in Hanau am Main. His father, Georg Pflüger, was a merchant, politician, journalist, and member of the Vorparlament (preliminary assembly of the first German National Assembly) in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt am Main. Eduard Pflüger studied law from 1848 to 1850 in Marburg, Munich, and Berlin, and graduated as a doctor of law in 1851 in Giessen. In 1855, he took his degree as a doctor of medicine in Berlin; the title of his dissertation was De nervorum splanchnicorum functione. Three years later, in Berlin, he wrote his Habilitation thesis on the electrical tonus as part of the formal requirements to become a professor. Pflüger was offered an appointment in 1859 as ordentlicher Professor (full professor) at the University of Bonn in the Physiology Department, and founded the first independent Department of Physiology of the university. Beginning in the year 1864, he focused on the biochemistry of blood, and was the one who sparked Zuntz’s interest in this field. Eduard Pflüger became known not only for his numerous scientific publications, but above all as a publisher of Pflügers Archiv für die gesammte Physiologie des Menschen und der Thiere (Pflüger’s Archive on the Physiology of Humans and Animals), the first volume of which was published in 1868, with the 455th volume being published in October 2008. Zuntz published a large number of his articles in this journal (cf. List of works by Nathan Zuntz). He was a member of numerous national and international scientific committees and associations, and was granted a series of prestigious scientific awards and honors during his lifetime. Eduard Pflüger died on March 16, 1910, in Bonn (cf. Hirsch, A.: Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Ärzte aller Zeiten und Völker (Biographical Encyclopaedia of the Most Outstanding Doctors of all Times and Peoples), 4th volume, Urban & Schwarzenberg 1886, p. 554; von Cyon, E.: Eduard Pflüger, Pflügers Arch. 132(1910), pp. 1–19).Google Scholar
  3. 11.
    cf. Hirsch, A: Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden ärzte aller Zeiten und Völker (Biographical Encyclopaedia of the Most Outstanding Doctors of all Times and Peoples), Urban & Schwarzenberg 1886, p. 554; cf. Wenig, O.: Verzeichnis der Professoren und Dozenten der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität von 1818–1968 (Register of the Professors and Lecturers of the University of Bonn from 1818–1968), Bonn 1868, pp. 225 et seq. Google Scholar
  4. 12.
    cf. Zuntz, N.: Über den Einfluss des Partiardrucks der Kohlensäure auf die Vertheilung dieses Gases im Blute (On the influence of partial pressure of carbonic acids on the distribution of this gas in blood), Zentralblatt M. Wiss. 5 (1867), pp. 529–533. cf. Zuntz, N.: Zur Kenntniss des Stoffwechsels im Blute (Information on the metabolism in blood), Zentralblatt M. Wiss. 5 (1867), pp. 801–804. cf. Zuntz, N.: Beiträge zur Physiologie des Blutes (Contributions on the Physiology of Blood), dissertation (1868). cf. Pflüger, E. and Zuntz, N.: Über den Einfluss der Säuren auf die Gase des Blutes (On the influence of acids on the blood gasses), Pflügers Arch. 1 (1868), pp. 361–374. cf. Zuntz, N.: Über die Bindung der Kohlensaure im Blute (On carbonic acid bonds in blood), Berl. Klin. Wschr. 7 (1870), p. 185.Google Scholar
  5. 15.
    cf. letter from Zuntz to the dean dated July 9, 1870, Archives of the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelm-University Bonn.Google Scholar
  6. 16.
    cf. memorial posters for each year of the history of the academy, put up at the Koniglich Preussische Landwirtschaftliche Akademie (Royal Prussian Agricultural Academy in Bonn-Poppelsdorf) by Seehaus,-.: Jahrestafeln zur Geschichte der Akademie. Die Koniglich Preussische Landwirtschaftliche Akademie, Bonn-Poppelsdorf Bonn (1915), p. 123.Google Scholar
  7. 17.
    cf. Schulte, K. H. S.: Bonner Juden und ihre Nachkommen bis um 1930 (Bonn Jews and their Descendants until 1930), Veröffentlichungen Stadt. Bonn 16 (1976), p. 547. cf. Death Certificate no. 347, record of the Sterbebuch (register of deaths) kept by the personal records office Bonn 1, 1874, City Archives, Bonn.Google Scholar
  8. 19.
    cf. von Goltz, T. Freiherr: Festschrift zur Feier des fiinfzigjährigen Bestehens der Koniglich Preussischen landwirtschaftlichen Akademie Poppelsdorf (Publication Celebrating the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Prussian Royal Academy of Agriculture in Poppelsdorf), Bonn 1897. pp. 19 et seq. cf. letters from Müller to the author dated August 23, 1985 and April 14, 1986.Google Scholar
  9. 20.
    cf. Pfliiger, E.: Wesen und Aufgabe der Physiologie (The Nature and the Task of Physiology), speech held on the inauguration of the new Physiological Institute in Poppelsdorf near Bonn on November 9, 1878, Pflügers Arch. 18 (1878), p. 424.Google Scholar
  10. 21.
    cf. von Liebig, J.: Reden und Ahhandlungen von Justus von Liebig (Speeches and Treatises by J. von Liebig), Wissenschaft und Landwirtschaft (academic address, Science and Agriculture) held on March 26, 1861, Leipzig-Heidelberg 1874. pp. 194 et seq., p. 199. cf. Wittmack, L.: Die Königliche Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule in Berlin, Festschrift zur Feier des 25jährigen Bestehens (The Royal Agricultural College in Berlin, Publication Celebrating its Twenty-Fifth Anniversary), Paul Parey 1906, p. 9.Google Scholar
  11. 22.
    Hugo Thiel was born on June 2, 1839, as the fourth child of the University Secretary and Rechnungsrat (Councilor for Accounting Matters) Thiel, whose family lived in the castle of Poppelsdorf near Bonn. In 1857, Hugo Thiel passed his school-leaving examination. Prior to taking up his studies at the Agricultural Academy in Poppelsdorf, he gained two years of experience as an administrative apprentice in two large estates (Uenglingen near Stendal and Morsbroich near Mühlheim). In 1864, he graduated from the Agricultural Academy Poppelsdorf and was awarded the degree of doctor of agriculture, based on his dissertation on botany and plant physiology, for which Sachs was his counselor. After he had completed the procedure for becoming a university lecturer (Habilitation) in Bonn (1866), he was appointed lecturer, holding the title of Lehrer der Landwirtschaft (teacher of agriculture). From 1867 until 1869, he was director of the experimental field of the Poppelsdorf Academy. Later, he was appointed to a post at the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (1869) and to the Technische Hochschule of Munich (1872). In 1873, Hugo Thiel accepted positions as Generalsekretar des Landesokonomiekollegiums (Secretary General of the State Economy College) and as Referent fur das Landwirtschaftliche Bildungswesen (Expert on Matters of Professional Training in Agriculture), both with the Prussian Ministry for Agriculture. In 1879, Thiel was appointed as Geheimer Regierungsrat (privy higher executive officer) and in 1885 as Geheimer Oberregierungsrat (privy principal) in the Ministerium für Landwirtschaft, Domänen und Forsten (Ministry of Agriculture, State-owned Domains and Forests). From 1880 onwards, Hugo Thiel acted as provisional director of the newly established Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule (Agricultural College) in Berlin and acted, in conjunction with the privy principal Goeppert of the Ministerium für Geistliche Angelegenheiten (Ministry for Matters of Intellectual Affairs) as curator of this institution, for which the minister was directly responsible. In 1897, he was appointed as Wirklicher Geheimer Oberregierungsrat (high privy principal) and as director of Department II within the ministry (being responsible for the state-owned domains). Hugo Thiel supported, in all ways imaginable, the institution and further development of the Agricultural Colleges in Poppelsdorf and later in Berlin. This means that he was one of the most important political contacts that Zuntz could have in the Ministry in Berlin. In addition to these professional activities, Hugo Thiel is also known as the editor of the Landwirtschaftliche Jahrbücher (Agricultural Yearbooks), in which Zuntz published many of his essays (cf. List of Works by Nathan Zuntz). Hugo Thiel died on January 13, 1918 in Berlin (cf. Zuntz, N.: Hugo Thiel, [obituary published in] Deutsche Landwirtschaftliche Presse (German Agricultural Journal) 45 (1918a) pp. 161–163; Wenig, O.: Verzeichnis der Professoren und Dozenten der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität von 1818–1968 (Register of the Professors and Lecturers of the University of Bonn from 1818–1968), Bonn 1868, p. 310; Letter from Muller to the author of August 23, 1985).Google Scholar
  12. 23.
    cf. von Basch, S.: Über den Einfluss der Athmung von comprimirter und ver-dünnter Luft auf den Blutdruck des Menschen (On the effects that breathing compressed and diluted air has on human blood pressure), Med. Jahrbücher (1877), pp. 489–497. cf. Lebegott, W.: Die Ausathmung in verdünnter Luft (Expiration in Diluted Air), Inaugural Dissertation, Berlin 1882. cf. Fraenkel, A. and Geppert, J.: Über die Wirkungen der verdünnten Luft auf den Organismus (Notes on the Effects of Diluted Air on the Organism), Springer-Verlag 1883. cf. Dietrich, J.: Die Wirkung comprimirter und verdünnter Luft auf den Blutdruck (The effects of compressed and diluted air on blood pressure), Arch. Exp. Path. Pharm. 18 (1884), pp. 242-259.Google Scholar
  13. 24.
    cf. the further sources: Winau, R.: Medizin in Berlin, De Gruyter 1987, p. 243, and curriculum vitae Loewy in the corresponding footnote.Google Scholar
  14. 25.
    cf. „Tauf-Nr. 181“ dated October 23, 1889, Archives of the Jerusalem und Neue Kirche Parish Berlin, p. 173.Google Scholar
  15. 26.
    Wittmack writes that the Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule (Agricultural College) in Berlin can be traced back to A. Thaer, who in 1806 founded the Königliche akademische Lehranstalt des Ackerbaus (Royal Academic Institute of Agriculture) in Möglin near Wriezen. In 1862, this was moved to Berlin under the name of Landwirtschaftliches Lehrinstitut (Agricultural Institute of Learning). In 1881, the institute was renamed the Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule (Agricultural College) and finally in 1934 was incorporated as a department of the university (cf. Wittmack, L.: Die Königliche Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule in Berlin (The Berlin Royal College of Agriculture), Paul Parey 1906, pp. 4–15; Asen, J.: Gesamtverzeichnis des Lehrkörpers der Universität Berlin (Complete List of Instructors of Berlin University), 1st volume, Harrassowitz 1955, p. III).Google Scholar
  16. 27.
    August Julius Geppert was born on November 7, 1856 in Berlin. He studied medicine in Heidelberg (1875–1877) and Berlin (1877–1879), where he obtained his PhD in 1880. His doctoral thesis was entitled Die Gase des arteriellen Blutes im Fieber (The Arterial Blood Gases during Fever). From 1880 until 1885, when he worked with Zuntz, Julius Geppert was second assistant at the Medizinische Klinik (Medical Clinic) in Berlin. In 1886, he went to the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Bonn and in the same year became professor of pharmacology there. In 1893 he was appointed ausserordentlicher Professor (professor without tenure), and in 1899 accepted an appointment as chair of pharmacology in Giessen. His most influential publications addressed the physiology of respiration, anesthetics and hygiene (cf. Pagel, J.: Biographisches Lexikon hervorragender Ärzte des neun-zehnten Jahrhunderts (Biographical Encyclopedia of Outstanding Doctors of the Nineteenth Century), Urban & Schwarzenberg 1901, pp. 592 et seq., Fischer, I.: Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Ärzte der letzten fünfzig Jahre (Biographical Encyclopedia of Outstanding Doctors of the Last Fifty Years), Urban & Schwarzenberg 1962b, p. 492).Google Scholar
  17. 28.
    In the history of the University of California it is mentioned that the benefactress Mrs Phoebe Hearst equipped the new laboratories at Parnassus (1899-), among others, with a Zuntz respiration apparatus, and apparently one observer noted, „it is believed that this equipment is scarcely equaled and certainly not excelled in this country.“ University of California, San Francisco. A History of the University of California San Francisco [electronic resource]. University of California Regents, 2001.Google Scholar
  18. 29.
    cf. Geppert, J. and Zuntz, N.: Über die Regulation der Athmung (On respiratory regulation), Pflügers Archiv 42 (1888) pp. 189 et seq. This hypothesis on „Mitinnervation,“ expressed more than a hundred years ago by Zuntz and Geppert, is still intensively discussed in scientific literature today (cf. Schmidt, R. E, Lang, F. and Thews, G.: Physiologie des Menschen (Human Physiology), Springer 2005, pp. 780–781; Dempsey, J.A. and Whipp, B. J.: The respiratory system. In: Exercise Physiology, edited by C. M. Tipton, Oxford University Press 2003b, pp. 153, 155; Tipton, C. M.: The autonomic nervous system. In Exercise Physiology, edited by C. M. Tipton, Oxford University Press 2003b, pp. 197, 204; Stegemann, J.: Leistungsphysiologie (Exercise Physiology), Thieme 1984, pp. 195–197).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 30.
    In this regard, cf. Fishman, A. and Richards, D. W.: Circulation of the Blood — Men and Ideas, Oxford University Press 1964, pp. 97–98. They stated that Nathan Zuntz „had done pioneering work in the quantitative study of metabolic gaseous exchange,“ although they felt that in general, “Zuntz and his collaborators were more interested in metabolism than in hemodynamics.”Google Scholar
  20. 31.
    cf. Zuntz, N. and Magnus-Levy, A.: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Verdaulichkeit und des Nährwerthes des Brodes (Contributions on the Digestibility and Nutritional Value of Bread), Pflügers Arch. 49 (1893), pp. 438–460. cf. Lehmann, C., Müller, E, Munk, I., Senator, H. and Zuntz, N.: Untersuchungen an zwei hungernden Menschen (Investigations Made on two Starving People), Arch. Path. Anat. 131 (1893), pp. 1–229. cf. Lehmann, E, Hagemann, O. and Zuntz, N.: Zur Kenntnis des Stoffwechsels beim Pferde (Notes on the Metabolism of the Horse), Landwissenschaft Jahrbuch 23 (1894), pp. 125–165. cf. Zuntz, N.: Über den Stoffverbrauch des Hundes bei Muskelarbeit (On the Metabolism of the Dog under Muscular Exertion), Pflügers Arch. 68 (1897), pp. 191–211. cf. Zuntz, N. and Knauthe, K.: Gesichtspunkte zur Beurteilung praktischer Fütterungsversuche an Fischen (Aspects of Evaluating Practical Fish Feeding Methods), Fisch. Zg 1 (1898a), pp. 480–483. Zuntz’s studies on starving humans must be seen in a broader historical perspective which is beyond the scope of the present publication but nevertheless quite interesting because it deals with the inter-dependencies between science, the public, and the media in addition to covering the physiological aspects (Diezemann, N: Die Kunst des Hungerns. Anorexie in literarischen and medizinischen Texten um 1900, Dissertation Universität Hamburg 2005, pp. 103–115).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 32.
    cf. Cohnstein, J. and Zuntz, N.: Untersuchungen über das Blut, den Kreislauf und die Athmung beim Säugethier-Fötus (Investigations on Blood, the Circulation, and Respiration of Mammal Fetuses), Pflügers Arch. 34 (1884), pp. 173–233. The investigations performed in the context of this research on fetal circulation functions certainly only represent a small section of all the research done by Zuntz on circulation physiology. But it is precisely these experiments — conducted once again using brilliantly simple methods — and their results which enjoy high recognition today, especially in the academic literature of English speaking nations (cf. Fishman, A. and Richards, D. W., Circulation of the Blood — Men and Ideas, Oxford University Press 1964, pp. 750, 765, 791, 802–803).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 33.
    Recently, Rowell recognized the work of Zuntz and Hagemann (1898) on exercis ing horses and their cardiac output as a remarkable contribution to exercise physiology (Rowell, L. B.: The cardiovascular system. In: Exercise Physiology, edited by C. M. Tipton, Oxford University Press 2003b p. 106). A similar opinion was expressed by Hamilton, citing Y. Henderson: „The contributions of these workers [Zuntz and Hagemann] were of such great merit that Yandell Henderson felt that we should refer to the method of Zuntz and Hagemann rather than the method of Fick.“(Hamilton, W. R: The physiology of cardiac output. Circulation 8 (1953), p. 528). A few years after these benchmark experiments by Zuntz and Hagemann, the other close co-workers of Zuntz’s laboratory A. Loewy, H. von Schroetter and J. Plesch (Zuntz, N. and Plesch, J.: Methode zur Bestimmung der zirkulierenden Blutmenge beim lebenden Tiere. Biocbemiscbe Zeitschrift 11 (1909a): pp. 47–60) introduced rebreathing gas mixtures to avoid pulmonary catheterization (Rowell, L. B.: The cardiovascular system. In: Exercise Physiology, edited by C. M. Tipton, Oxford University Press 2003b p. 106).Google Scholar
  23. 34.
    Furthermore, based on the publications on the catheterization of the heart in humans and their importance for physiological and medical research by W. Forssmann (Forssmann, 1929) (Germany), A. F. Cournand (United States) (Cournand and Ranges, 1941) and D. W. Richards received the Nobel Prize together with him in 1956 (further details in the Nobel Prize database: http://nobelprize.org/medicine/nomination/nomination.php?-Cournando&action; http://nobelprize.org/medicine/nomination/nomination.php?-Forssmann&action; http://nobelprize.org/ medicine/nomination/nomination.php?-Richards&action). The importance of this new method was highlighted by Granger in 1998, when he gave his overview of the history of cardiovascular physiology in the twentieth century (Granger, H. J.: Cardiovascular physiology in the twentieth century: great strides and missed opportunities. Am J Physiol Heart Circ. Physiol. (1998) 275: H1925–H1936). Recently, however, Bröer (2002) has raised doubts as to whether it was really proper for Forssmann to have received the Nobel Prize, because Zuntz and others had successfully performed similar experiments in animals earlier (Bröer, R.: Legende oder Realität? Werner Forssmann und die Herzkatheterisierung. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 127 (2002), pp. 2151–2154).Google Scholar
  24. 35.
    Quoted according to Bröer, 2002, pp. 2151-2154. cf. In this context also: Cournand, A. R: From Roots to Late Budding. The Intellectual Adventures of a Medical Scientist, Gardner Press 1986.Google Scholar
  25. 36.
    cf. Herken, H.: Tierexperimentelle Prüfung von Arzneimitteln (Testing Pharmaceuticals using Experiments on Animals), Dtsch. Ärztebl. 77 (1980), pp. 2617–2628. cf. Wittke, G.: Bedeutung und Begründung des Tierversuchs in der medizinischen Ausbildung (The Significance of Animal Experimentation in Medical Training and the Reasons for its Use), type-written manuscript of the lecture given on the occasion of the inauguration of the Central Animal Laboratory on February 27, 1982 in Berlin. cf. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association): Tierexperimentelle Forschung und Tierschutz (Animal Experimentation in Research and Animal Protection), Weinheim 1984.Google Scholar
  26. 37.
    cf. Friedlaender, C. and Herter, E.: Über die Wirkung des Sauerstoffmangels auf den thierischen Organismus (On the Effect of Oxygen Deficiency on the Animal Organism), Z. Physiol. Chem. 3 (1879), pp. 19–51. cf. Fraenkel, A. and Geppert, J. Über die Wirkungen der verdünnten Luft (On the Effects of Thinned Air), Springer Verlag 1883, pp. 1-112. cf. Dietrich, J.: Die Wirkung comprimirter und verdünnter Luft auf den Blutdruck (The effect of compressed and thinned air on blood pressure), Arch. Exp. Path. Pharm. 18 (1884), pp. 242–259.Google Scholar
  27. 38.
    Adolf Loewy was born on June 29, 1862, in Berlin. He studied medicine in Berlin and Vienna. His doctorate thesis was entitled Über den Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Filtration von Eiweisslösungen durch tierische Membranen (On the Influence of Temperature on the Filtration of Protein Solutions through Animal Membranes), which he submitted in Berlin in 1885. In 1886 he spent a short period in Vienna to study physiology, but then returned to Berlin to work in Zuntz’s laboratory. Here, as well as in the pneumatic chamber of the Jewish Hospital in Berlin, he simulated high altitudes to conduct physiological experiments. In 1895, he wrote his Habilitation (second thesis required in the German higher education system to become a professor) and published his important work on respiration and high altitude physiology, Untersuchungen über die Respiration und Zirkulation bei Änderung des Druckes und des Sauerstoffs der Luft (Investigations on the Respiration and Circulation when the Air Pressure and its Oxygen Content Change). Zuntz played a significant role in realizing this work and a number of other publications (cf. List of Works by Nathan Zuntz). In recognition of this fact, Adolf Loewy dedicated his Habilitation thesis to Nathan Zuntz. In 1900, he became what is referred to as a Titular-Professor (guest professor who is deemed to have the requisite abilities to hold a chair without being granted one), read lectures, gave courses and trained students at the Physiology Institute in Berlin, and additionally worked as a general practitioner. According to Jokl, Loewy refused an appointment in Berlin in 1905 after it was demanded of him that he abandon Judaism and convert “to a respectable religion.” In 1909, the Lehrbuch der Physiologie des Menschen (Textbook of Human Physiology) was published by Zuntz and Loewy. In 1917 he was appointed ausserordentlicher Professor (professor without tenure) for anatomy and physiology. On January 1, 1921, he was assigned the directorship of the biochemical department of the first medical clinic. Starting in 1922, he assumed directorship for the Schweizerisches Forschungsinstitut für Hochgebirgsklima und Tuberkulose (Swiss Research Institute for High Altitude Climate and Tuberculosis) in Davos. Jokl writes that he was in close contact with Lion Feuchtwanger and Thomas Mann during this time, and further states that during these meetings Mann collected information from Adolf Loewy about tuberculosis and those who fell ill to the disease. Thomas Mann later used this information in his novel The Magic Mountain, published in 1924. In 1933, his authorization to teach was revoked. Adolf Loewy died in Davos on December 24 (or 25), 1936, at seventy-six years of age. Today, he should certainly be regarded as one of the definitive pioneers of high altitude physiology research (cf. Pagel, J.: Biographisches Lexikon hervorragender Ärzte des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts (Biographical Encyclopedia of Outstanding Doctors of the Nineteenth Century), Urban and Schwarzenberg 1901, p. 1040; Fischer, I.: Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Ärzte der letzten fünfzig Jahre (Biographical Encyclopedia of Outstanding Doctors of the Last Fifty Years), Urban and Schwarzenberg 1962b, p. 936; Jokl, E.: Aus der Frühzeit der Deutschen Sportmedizin (The early years of German sports medicine), German Congress for Sports Physicians, September 27–29, 1984, Berlin, pp. 2–8; Kiell, P. J.: How sports medicine began, AMAA Newsletter 2 (1987), p. 10).Google Scholar
  28. Ernst Jokl was born in Breslau (Wroclaw) in 1907, attending the Johannes Gymnasium (high school) there, and passed his Abitur (school-leaving examination) in 1925. From 1925 until 1930, he studied medicine in Wroclaw and Berlin. In 1928, he was nominated as a candidate for the 400-m hurdle run in the Olympic Games in Amsterdam. The same year, he completed his exams to be an athletics instructor. In the winter months of 1930-1932, Ernst Jokl received a research scholarship to work with Loewy at the high altitude Physiological Institute in Davos. In 1931, he became director of the institute for athletic medicine in Wroclaw. In 1933, he emigrated to South Africa. Having arrived there, he received the proposition to assume Loewy’s position at the Davos institute. Jokl turned down the appointment and remained in South Africa until 1950. There, he was active in various universities, institutes and state institutions. For two years, from 1951 until 1952, he returned to Germany and gave guest lectures at the Sporthochschule (Athletic College) in Cologne. In 1953 Ernst Jokl emigrated once more, this time to Lexington, Kentucky, in the United States. At the university there he became director and professor of the Exercise Research Laboratories. Jokl died in 1997. His scientific works comprise a multitude of publications, primarily in the area of sports and endurance exercise (cf. Wrynn, A. M.: A debt paid off in tears, Intl. J. Hist. Sport 23 (2006), p. 1155; Jokl, E. 1975, unpublished autobiography. This includes a curriculum vitae Jokl wrote himself, as well as the transcript of the personal conversation of the author of this book with Jokl, which took place on August 24, 1987, in the Physiological Institute of the Freie Universität Berlin).Google Scholar
  29. 42.
    The considerate manner in which Zuntz interacted with others is emphasized in multiple sources: cf. Durig, A.: N. Zuntz, Wiener Klin. Wochensch. 33 (1920), p. 345. cf. von der Heide, R.: N. Zuntz, Landwirtschaftliche Jahrbuch 51 (1918), p. 345. cf. Loewy, Dem Gedächtnis an N. Zuntz (In memory of N. Zuntz), Berl. Klin. Wochensch. 57 (1920), p. 433.Google Scholar
  30. 43.
    Wilhelm Caspari was born in Berlin on February 4, 1872, studied chemistry and medicine in Freiburg and Berlin, and received his doctoral degree at the University of Leipzig in 1895. Afterwards he began work at Zuntz’s department of animal physiology at the Königlich Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule in Berlin. For nearly twenty years, together with A. Loewy, he was to be the closest scientific co-worker of Zuntz and a personal friend of Zuntz’s family. He worked until 1914 in Zuntz’s laboratory and then became a field surgeon on the Western Front in World War I. After the war, he worked at the Department of Cancer in Frankfurt/Main, which he headed until his dismissal by the Nazi regime in 1936. Scientifically, Caspari was deeply interested in research on metabolism and nutrition. He participated in Zuntz’s expedition to the Monte Rosa in 1901. He pioneered vitamin and cancer research, especially in relation to the effects of radiation on cell growth and metabolism, and introduced the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer. He died in 1944 in the ghetto of Lodz (Schwartz, E. and Chambers, R.: Wilhelm Caspari: 1872–1944. Science 105 (1947), p. 613).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 45.
    cf. Brooks, G. A., Fahey, T. D. and White, T. P.: Exercise Physiology, 2nd edition. Human Bioenergetics and Its Applications. Mayfield Publishing Company 1996, p. 14.Google Scholar
  32. 46.
    Angelo Mosso was born in Turino in 1846. Among other places, he studied medicine with Ludwig in Leipzig. Primarily due to this period of studies in Leipzig, Zuntz described Angelo Mosso as having “especially intimate relationships” within the German physiology community. In 1876 he became professor of pharmaceutical instruction in Turin, and some years later he was made chair of physiology there. Starting in 1893, he began to prepare the major, multi-week Monte Rosa expedition which took place in 1894. Angelo Mosso was the founder of the institute for high-mountain research bearing his name, which was located on Monte Rosa. At the same time, under his supervision, the construction of the “Capanna Regina Margherita” was concluded in 1893. This station was located on the Gnifetti peak (4560m above sea level) and was indispensable for the planned long-term studies that were to be performed at high altitude. Mosso named the cabin after the young Queen of Italy (Margherita Teresa Giovanna); she and Mosso had taken several mountain tours in the Alps together. In 1899, Mosso also dedicated his comprehensive book Man in the High Alps to the young queen; this book was also published in German (Der Mensch auf den Hochalpen). He earned an international reputation for the work he did on exhaustion physiology, for which he used an ergograph he had developed himself. As a high altitude physiologist, he primarily addressed the influence of hypocapnia on the organism. He believed that “mountain sickness” could be traced back to a reduced level of C02 in the blood at high altitude. Angelo Mosso died on November 24, 1910, in Turin (cf. Pagel, J.: Biographisches Lexikon hervorragender Ärzte des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts (Biographical Encyclopedia of Outstanding Doctors of the Nineteenth Century), Urban & Schwarzenberg 1901, pp. 1163 et seq.; Rothschuh, K. E.: Geschichte der Physiologie (History of Physiology), Springer 1953, pp. 160 et seq.; Zuntz, N.: Angelo Mosso, Dtsch. Med. Wochenschrift 27 (1911n), p. 31; Zuntz, N.: Angelo Mosso einige Worte des Gedenkens (Angelo Mosso: A Few Words in Remembrance), Zentralblatt Physiol. 25 (1911m), pp. 93–94).Google Scholar
  33. 47.
    Hugo Kronecker lived from 1839 until 1914. He was born in Liegnitz, a city near Breslau. He studied in Berlin, Heidelberg, Pisa and completed his doctorate in 1863 in Berlin. In 1868, he went to Leipzig to work with Ludwig. Kronecker completed his Habilitation (second thesis required in the German higher education system to become a professor) in 1872 and was appointed ausserordentlicher Professor (professor without tenure) in 1875. He left Leipzig in 1878 and took up a position as Abteilungsvorsteher (departmental head) at the physiological institute in Berlin, reporting to Du Bois-Reymond. Most likely, he had the opportunity to become acquainted personally with Zuntz over the next two years. In 1885, he left Berlin and assumed the chair of physiology in Berne. During his academic life, Kronecker pursued a variety of physiological issues, focussing on high altitude physiology and in particular on the etiology of “mountain sickness.” Together with Mosso, he played a considerable role in the realization and establishment of the international high altitude research station on Monte Rosa (cf. Rothschuh, K. E.: Geschichte der Physiologie (History of Physiology), Springer 1953, pp. 153 et seq.).Google Scholar
  34. 48.
    Simons and Oelz (2001) stated that one could only be astonished about their loyal and respectful relationship because the Zuntz School, with their extremely precise planning, working, and documentation style, was in absolute contrast to the some-what chaotic but inspired scientific approach of Mosso. cf. Simons, E. and Oelz, O.: Kopfwehherge. Eine Geschichte der Hohenmedizin. AS Verlag und Buchkonzept 2001, p. 118.Google Scholar
  35. 50.
    In 2006, Wrynn recognized Zuntz’s innovative methodological devices: “The construction of instruments to quantify the impact of altitude on the human body was another component of this effort [ballooning]. Much of the research that occurred as the nineteenth century ended came from the German laboratories, particularly the work of Nathan Zuntz. Most importantly, Zuntz and his co-workers developed improved mechanisms for measuring ventilation and oxygen consumption.” (Wrynn, 2006, p. 1155).Google Scholar
  36. 52.
    Arnold Durig was born on November 12, 1872, in Innsbruck/Tyrolia. He attended the Gymnasium (high school) there and studied medicine at the local university. He passed all his medical examinations with “excellent” success. After having concluded his studies, he was secondary physician and Volontär (trainee) at numerous clinics in Innsbruck, serving in a wide variety of wards. On January 16, 1898, Durig received his doctorate at the university as a Doktor der gesamten Heilkunde (doctor of general medicine). From May 1, 1894, he held a position as assistant at the Innsbruck Physiological Institute. In 1900 he went to the Physiological Institute in Vienna, and two years later he completed his Habilitation (second thesis required in the German higher education system to become a professor) there. After a period abroad, studying at Oxford, Durig went to Berlin to work in Zuntz’s laboratory. In 1903, he was called to the Hochschule für Bodenkultur (College for Agriculture) in Vienna. Durig and Zuntz undertook their joint expedition to Monte Rosa, continuing the research done during the major expedition of Zuntz, Loewy, Müller and Caspari in 1901. During this time the two men forged a close, lifelong friendship, as documented by the obituary written by Durig. In March 1904, Arnold Durig was appointed ausserordentlicher Professor (professor without tenure) of physiology, and in January 1905 he became ordentlicher Professor (tenured professor). Thereafter, he turned down numerous positions at veterinary medicine schools (Vienna 1900, Innsbruck 1905, Prague and Berlin 1908, Berlin 1911, Berlin 1919). In addition, he is said to have negotiated with a number of other German universities for various appointments. In the summer of 1906, he oversaw another multi-week and carefully planned Monte Rosa expedition, in which Kolmer, Rainer, Reichel and Caspari participated. The results of these studies and the subsequent investigations in the winter of 1906/07 in Vienna were published in 1911 in the Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Publications of the Imperial Academy of Sciences). Durig received the Lieben Prize from this academy in 1906, and was made a corresponding member in 1911 and a full member in 1915. Durig was certainly significantly involved in Zuntz’s being awarded his honorary doctorate from the department of agriculture at the University of Vienna, presumably in 1913. On December 2, 1918, he was made chair for physiology in the medical department of the University of Vienna, thus becoming Exner’s successor. In total, his scholarly works comprise approximately 1000 publications, primarily in the fields of metabolism physiology, nutritional physiology, and high altitude physiology. In May 1938, he was forced into retirement for political reasons. Durig was a member and president of numerous scientific institutes, associations and clubs — among others, the Landessanitatsrat (State Sanitary Council) of Vienna, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Volksgesundheit (Austrian Association for Human Health), Österreichisches Zentralkommitee zur Bekämpfung der Tuberkulose (Austrian Central Committee for Combating Tuberculosis), and the Akademie Deutscher Naturforscher (Academy of German Researchers of Nature). He was awarded numerous honors in Germany and Austria. Following his retirement in 1938, he lived at his country house in Vorarlberg until his death on October 18, 1961. On account of his many years of intensive research, in particular on Monte Rosa, Arnold Durig is today considered to be among the pioneers of high altitude physiology (cf. staff record sheet of Arnold Durig, files kept by the University of Vienna, non-numbered pages; Die feierliche Inauguration des Rektors der Wiener Universität fär das Studienjahr 1962/63 (The Festive Inauguration of the rector of the Vienna University for the Academic Year 1962/63), Vienna 1963, pp. 43 et seq.; Strasser, P. and Andreas, R. (eds): Montafon 1906–2006, Montafoner Schriftenreihe 2006; Museum des Heimatschutzvereins Montafon, estate of Arnold Durig, unpaginated).Google Scholar
  37. 53.
    Viktor von Podbielski, Staatsminister für Landwirtschaft, Domänen und Forsten (State Minister for Agriculture, State Domains and Forests) from 1901–1906, was born on February 26, 1844, in Frankfurt an der Oder and died on January 20, 1916 in Berlin (cf. Deutscbes Biograpbiscbes Jabrbucb (German Biographical Yearbook), Überleitungsband (transitional volume) 1914–1916, Berlin-Leipzig 1925, p. 366).Google Scholar
  38. 54.
    Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen reported that “maybe the most important outcome of the Heidelberg congress and the visit to Zuntz was that August Krogh met Joseph Barcroft.” And he continued, citing from a letter of August Krogh to Lady Barcroft after Barcroft’s death in 1947: “I met Barcroft in 1907 in Heidelberg and a few days later again in Zuntz’s laboratory in Berlin, and the sympathy between us rapidly became very deep. I have the most vivid memory of those happy, far-off days and the delight of old Zuntz in your husband’s micro-method for oxygen in blood: Das ist ja für die Kliniker geradezu gefundenes Fressen (The clinicians will just love it).” (Schmidt-Nielsen B.: August & Marie Krogh. Lives in Science, Oxford University Press, American Physiological Society 1995, p. 82).Google Scholar
  39. 55.
    cf. in this regard, the following papers: Zuntz, N.: Zum Ausbau der fischereilichen Wissenschaft (Notes on the Expansion of Fishery Science), Fisch. Zg (1904c), pp. 581–583. Zuntz, N.: Wissenschaftliche und praktische Studien zur Teichwirtschaft (Scientific and Practical Studies on Fisheries), Fisch. Zg (1906b) pp. 385–390, 401–406. Zuntz, N. and Knauthe, K.: Gesichtspunkte zur Beurteilung praktischer Fütterungsversuche an Fischen (Aspects for Evaluating Practical Fish Feeding Methods), Fisch. Zg (1898a), pp. 480–483. Zuntz, N.: Die Aufgaben der Wissenschaft für die Förderung der Teichwirtschaft (The Tasks of Science for Promoting Fisheries), Fisch. Zg (1898a), pp. 624–627. Zuntz, N. and Knauthe, K.: Über die Verdauung und den Stoffwechsel der Fische (On the Digestion and Metabolism of Fish), Verh. Berl. Pbysiol. Ges. (1898b), pp. 149–154.Google Scholar
  40. 57.
    According to a message from Cornell University to the author, a check of the Cornell “Register” for 1907–08 and 1908–09, which contains course descriptions, schedules, lists of faculty, and often also the names of visiting professors for each college, could not locate any reference to Zuntz in the part describing the summer of 1908. (Letter from Laura Linke, Reference Specialist, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, C. A. Kroch Library, Cornell University, Ithaka, NY (USA), dated June 23, 2006.) Furthermore, it would seem that Zuntz was not able to visit Pikes Peak, since there are no documents in the archives of the research station which indicate such a stay (personal communication, J. Reeves (1928–2004) in August 2004 in Xining/China). Regarding Zuntz’s opinion about the quality of Armsby’s research, W. H. Jordan noted: “When in Berlin in 1913 I asked Dr. N. Zuntz if the United States had any research workers in animal nutrition of equal standing with the best men in Europe, Zuntz answered immediately, “Armsby” (cited after Benedict, F. G.: Biographical Memoir of Henry Prentiss Armsby 1853–1921. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Biographical Memoirs 19 (1938), p. 278).Google Scholar
  41. 58.
    Jacques Loeb was born on April 7, 1859, in Mayen near Koblenz, Germany. He was a Jewish biologist of German-American origin who is considered to be one of the founders of “general physiology,” an experimental field of biological research which started to develop around 1880, although today Loeb’s own views on the subject and framework of general physiology are regarded to be “inconsistent and unsystematic” (cited after: Geison, G. L. (ed.): Physiology in the American Context, 1850–1940, American Physiological Society 1987, p. 198). Loeb lost his parents at the age of sixteen and started to study philosophy after school. However, he then decided to study medicine in Berlin, Munich, and Strasbourg, where he worked in the laboratory of Friedrich Leopold Goltz. After his graduation (1884) and state examination (1885), he returned to Berlin and worked as an assistant of Nathan Zuntz at the Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule (Agricultural College) (Pace, 1986, p. 10). In 1886, he went to Würzburg to work with the physiologist Adolf Fick, and returned to Strasbourg in 1888. In 1891, Jacques Loeb accepted an invitation to the Bryn Mawr College for Women in Pennsylvania. He started to work as professor of physiology at the University of Chicago in Whitman’s “biological physiology” laboratory in 1892, and was put in charge of the physiology course at Marine Laboratory Woods Hole in the same year. According to Geison (1987), it first seemed that Loeb was well suited to Whitman’s working style. However, this was not the case. Loeb’s passion was to solve problems that would lead to scientific control over organisms. He did not intend to explain the nature of life, and lumped evolutionism together with other aspects of “metaphysics” and Naturphilosophie. So it came that two years later, in 1894, Loeb wrote to Zuntz that scientists succeeded in America “only through ‘pull’. In order to have ‘pull’ one must be a diplomat; but since none of my ancestors was employed in the Foreign Office —Palestinian times excepted, but there the documents are missing — it is not surprising that I have little diplomatic talent” (cited after Geison, G. L. (ed.): Physiology in the American Context, 1850–1940, American Physiological Society 1987, p. 197). Loeb was one of the founders of the Journal of General Physiology, but by 1902, the leading American physiologists were crowding him out of the professional community. The American Physiological Society Council, led by Chittenden, removed him from the editorial board of the American journal of Physiology on the grounds that he was no longer affiliated with a major institution (Geison, G. L. (ed.): Physiology in the American Context, 1850–1940, American Physiological Society 1987, pp. 198–199). Jacques Loeb died on February 11, 1924, in Hamilton, Bermuda, USA. Bibliography: Der Heliotropismus der Thiere und seine Übereinstimmung mit dem Heliotropismus der Pflanzen, 1890 (Heliotropism of Animals and its Correspondence to the Heliotropism of Plants); Untersuchungen zur physiologischen Morphologie der Thiere (Investigations on the Physiological Morphology of Animals), 2 volumes (volume I Über Heteromorphose (On Heteromorphosis)), 1891–92, volume II Einleitung in die vergleichende Hirnphysiologie (Introduction to Comparative Brain Physiology), 1899; On the transformation and regeneration of organs, American Journal of Physiology, 4 (1900) pp. 60–68; On the Production and Suppression of Muscular Twitchings, 1906, Vorlesungen über die Dynamik der Lebenserscheinungen (Lectures on the Dynamics of Forms of Living Matter), 1906; The Dynamics of Living Matter, New York 1906; Die chemische Entwicklungserregung der tierischen Eier (künstliche Parthenogenese) (The Chemical Development of Animal Eggs (Artificial Parthenogensis)), 1909; Is species-specificity a Mendelian character? Science 45 (1917), pp. 191–193; Regeneration from a Physico-Chemical Viewpoint, 1924; Die Eiweisskörper (Proteins), Berlin 1924; Fangerau, H. and MÜller, I.: National styles? Jacques Loeb’s analysis of German and American science around 1900 in his correspondence with Ernst Mach, Centaurus 47 (2005), pp. 207–225.Google Scholar
  42. 59.
    According to Jokl, as an older man Müller supposedly regarded the time spent with Zuntz on Monte Rosa as the best time he ever had in his life (cf. Jokl, E. Zur Geschichte der Höhenphysiologie (On the history of high altitude physiology), Forsch. Fortsch. 41 (1967), p. 324).Google Scholar
  43. 61.
    In this context, Zuntz spoke of “Klimatophysiologie” (climato-physiology). Hereinafter, the term commonly employed today, “climate physiology,” is used. cf. in this regard, the following selection of publications: Zuntz, N.: Künstliches Klima für Versuche am Menschen (Artificial climates for experiments on humans), Zschr. Baln. 3 (1911j), pp. 643 et seq. Zuntz, N.: Physiologische und hygienische Wirkungen der Seereisen (Physiological and hygienic effects of ocean travel), Zschr. Baln. 4 (1911d), pp. 165–168. Zuntz, N.: Zur Methodik der Klimaforschung (On the methodology of climate research), Med. Klin. (1911h), pp. 854 et seq. Zuntz, N.: Beiträge zur Physiologie der Klimawirkungen (Contributions to the physiology of climate effects), Zschr. Baln. 4 (1912g), pp. 523–525. Durig, A. and Zuntz, N.: Zur physiologischen Wirkung des Seeklimas (On the physiological effect of ocean climate), Biochem. Zschr. 39 (1912a), pp. 422–434. Durig, A. and Zuntz, N.: Beobachtungen über die Wirkung des Höhenklimas auf Teneriffa (Observations on the effect of high altitude climate on Tenerife), Biochem. Zschr. 39 (1912b), pp. 435–468. Durig, A., von Schroetter, H. and Zuntz, N.: Über die Wirkung intensiver Belichtung auf den Gaswechsel und die Atemmechanik (On the effect of intensive lighting on gas exchange and respiratory mechanics), Biochem. Zschr. 39 (1912), pp. 469–495. Loewy, A.: Über den Stoffwechsel im WÜstenklima (On metabolism in desert climates), Zschr. Baln. 7/8 (1916), pp. 43–48. Loewy, A.: Über den Stoffwechsel im Wüstenklima (On metabolism in desert climates), Veröff. Zentralst. Baln. 3 (1916a), pp. 1–6. Durig, A., Neuberg, C. and Zuntz, N.: Ergebnisse der unter Führung von Prof. Pannwitz ausgeführten Teneriffaexpedition (Results of the Tenerife expedition headed by Prof. Pannwitz) 1910. IV. Die Hautausscheidung in dem trockenen Höhenklima (Skin excretion in dry high altitude climates), Biochem. Zschr. 72 (1916), pp. 253–284.Google Scholar
  44. 63.
    For the contents of this publication, please see Chapter 3.4 (Zuntz, N., Zur Physiologie und Hygiene der Luftfahrt (On the physiology and hygiene of aviation), in Luftfahrt und Wissenschaft 3 (1912a), pp. 1–67).Google Scholar
  45. 64.
    cf. in this regard the following selection of publications: Zuntz, N.: Zur Physiologie der Spiele und Leibesübungen (On the physiology of games and physical exercise), Blätter für Volksgesundheitspflege 11 (1911l), pp. 241–246. Zuntz, N.: Körperkultur und Sport (Physique and sports), Salonblatt (1912e), pp. 1716–1721. cf. Zuntz, N.: Physiologie des Sportes und der Leibesübungen (The physiology of sports and physical exercise), Himmel und Erde 26 (1914b), pp. 439–453.Google Scholar
  46. 65.
    cf. in this regard the following selection of publications: Zuntz, N.: Zur Physiologie der Spiele und Leibesübungen (On the physiology of games and physical exercise), Blätter für Volksgesundheitspflege 11 (1911l), pp. 241–246. Zuntz, N.: Körperkultur und Sport (Physique and sports), Salonblatt (1912e), pp. 1716–1721. cf. Zuntz, N.: Physiologie des Sportes und der Leibesübungen (The physiology of sports and physical exercise), Himmel und Erde 26 (1914b), pp. 439–453.Google Scholar
  47. 67.
    cf. in this regard the following publications: Zuntz, N.: Meinungsaustausch (An exchange of opinion), Deutsche Landwirtschaftliche Tierzucht 37 (1914a), p. 428.Google Scholar
  48. 67a.
    Zuntz, N.: Unsere Ernährung im Krieg (Our nourishment during war), Die neue Rundschau 1 (1915f), pp. 405–411.Google Scholar
  49. 67b.
    Zuntz, N.: Einfluss des Kriegs auf Ernährung und Gesundheit des deutschen Volkes (Influence of the war on the nutrition and health of the German people), Med. Klin. (1915h), pp. 1–24.Google Scholar
  50. 67c.
    Hehl, H. and Zuntz, N.: Die fettarme Küche (Low fat cooking), Flugschriften zur Volksernährung (1915), pp. 1–16.Google Scholar
  51. 67d.
    Zuntz, N.: Tier-Ernährung und Fütterung (Animal nutrition and feeding). In: Volksernährung im Kriege, Hobbing 1915a, pp. 100–117.Google Scholar
  52. 67e.
    Zuntz, N.: Einwirkung der Kriegslage auf die Teichwirtschaft (Influence of war on fisheries), Fisch. Zg. 18 (1915b), pp. 217 et seq.Google Scholar
  53. 67f.
    Zuntz, N.: Zur Einwirkung der Kriegslage auf die Teichwirtschaft (On the influence of war on fisheries), Fisch. Zg. 19 (1916b), pp. 127–129.Google Scholar
  54. 67g.
    Zuntz, N.: Die Aufgaben des Arztes beim gegenwärtigen Stande der Ernährungsfrage (The tasks of the physician in the current situation of nutritional issues), Dtsch. Med. Wschr. 43 (1917b), pp. 1409–1412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 67h.
    Zuntz, N.: Ernährung und Nahrungsmittel (Nutrition and Food), Teubner 1918a.Google Scholar
  56. 67i.
    Zuntz, N.: Ernährungsfragen (Nutrition questions), Land und Frau 2 (1918i), pp. 338 et seq. In the course of these studies Zuntz observed that the growth rate of hair and nails is increased if albuminous substances containing tyrosin and cystin are ingested. It might well be that these observations gave rise to the short note in the the New York Times under the title “Offers hope to the bald. German scientist says certain food elements make hair grow” (New York Times, 1920, February 11).Google Scholar
  57. 72.
    Letter from Zuntz to the Dean of the Department of Philosophy dated August 4, 1919, Archive of the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, honorary doctorate file for Zuntz. It remains remarkable that, in this letter of thanks to the dean, Zuntz does not once mention his doctoral advisor Pflüger when listing his most important instructors at the department and in colloquia. This is further evidence of the deep rift between Zuntz and Pflüger, which Durig alludes to in his obituary (cf. Durig, A.: N. Zuntz, Wiener Klin. Wochensch. 33 (1920), p. 345).Google Scholar

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  • Hanns-Christian Gunga

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