The PPAR System in Diabetes

  • Jean Claude Ansquer
  • Christelle Foucher
Part of the Contemporary Diabetes book series (CDI)


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), with three existing isoforms (PPAR α, PPAR β/δ, and PPAR γ), belong to the nuclear receptors subfamily. The PPAR machinery involves the binding of natural (fatty acids and prostaglandins), synthetic (mainly fibrates for PPAR α and thiazolidinediones for PPAR γ and new dual and pan-PPAR agonists), and selective PPAR modulators, coactivators, and corepressors with enzymatic activities and various metabolic transformations turning PPARs toward activation or to degradation. Among PPAR activators in clinical development for type 1 or type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, some have been discontinued for safety reasons or for no additional benefit over existing drugs. Knowing the pleiotropic effects of PPAR agonists, search for new natural PPAR ligands and clinical development of new target indications represent the main future of this class of drugs.


Ligand Binding Domain Phorbol Myristate Acetate PPAR Agonist Fenofibric Acid PPAR Activator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Claude Ansquer
    • 1
  • Christelle Foucher
    • 1
  1. 1.ClinSciencesDijonFrance

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