Pulmonary Hypoplasia: Role of Mechanical Factors in Prenatal Lung Growth

  • Richard Harding
  • Cheryl Albuquerque
Part of the Clinical Physiology Series book series (CLINPHY)

Abstract

Pulmonary hypoplasia is a term used to describe lungs that are sufficiently restricted in growth such that their ability to exchange respiratory gases is impaired; however, hypoplastic lungs are usually not simply small but are also structurally abnormal or immature. It is now recognized that fetal lung hypoplasia rarely occurs in isolation and is usually associated with other intrauterine abnormalities. This chapter considers how such abnormalities result in lung hypoplasia, and how lung structure and function are affected. For further information, the reader is directed to reviews of lung hypoplasia and the control of fetal lung growth (34, 42, 48, 62, 78, 90, 96, 139, 149, 163, 168).

Keywords

Surfactant Catheter Luminal Glucocorticoid Smoke 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adamson, T.M., R.D.H. Boyd, H.S. Platt, and L.B. Strang. Composition of alveolar liquid in the foetal lamb. J. Physiol. 204: 159–168, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adzick, N.S., M.R. Harrison, P.L. Glick, R.L. Villa, and W. Finkbeiner. Experimental pulmonary hypoplasia and oligohydramnios: relative contributions of lung fluid and fetal breathing movements. J. Pediatr. Surg. 19: 658–665, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aguirre, O.A., B.E. Finley, L.E. Ridgway, T.L. Bennett, and T.A. Cowles. Resolution of unilateral fetal hydrothorax with associated non-immune hydrops after intrauterine thoracentesis. Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 5: 346–348, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alcorn, D., T.M. Adamson, T.F. Lambert, J.E. Maloney, B.C. Ritchie, and P.M. Robinson. Morphological effects of chronic tracheal ligation and drainage in the fetal lamb lung. J. Anat. 123: 649–660, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alcorn, D., T.M. Adamson, J.E. Maloney, and P.M. Robinson. Morphological effects of chronic bilateral phrenectomy or vagotomy in the fetal lamb lung. J. Anat. 130: 683–695, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asabe, K., N.Toki, S. Hashimoto, S. Suita, and K. Sueishi. An immunohistochemical study of the expression of surfactant apoprotein in the hypoplastic lung of rabbit fetuses induced by oligohydramnios. Am. J. Pathol. 145: 631–639, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Askenazi, S.S. and M. Perlman. Pulmonary hypoplasia: lung weight and radial alveolar count as critical diagnosis. Arch. Dis. Child. 54: 614–618, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Avery, M.E. and C.D. Cook. Volume-pressure relationships of lungs and thorax in fetal, newborn, and adult goats. J. Appl. Physiol. 16: 1034–1038, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bamford, O.S., A. Rivera, T. Tadalan, and W. Ellis. Effects of in utero phrenic nerve section on the development of collagen and elastin in lamb lungs. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146: 1202–1205, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baskin, L., P.S. Howard, and E. Macarak. Effect of physical forces on bladder smooth muscle and urothelium. J. Urol. 150: 601–607, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bealer, J.F., E.D. Skarsgard, M.H. Hedrick, M. Meuli, K.J. Vanderwall, A.W. Flake, N.S. Adzick, and M.R. Harrison. The “PLUG” odyssey; adventures in experimental fetal tracheal occlusion. J. Pediatr. Surg. 30: 361–365, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blachford, K.G. and W.M. Thurlbeck. Lung growth and maturation in experimental oligohydramnios in the rat. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 3: 328–333, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blott, M. and A. Greenough. Neonatal outcome after prolonged rupture of the membranes starting in the second trimester. Arch. Dis. Child. 63: 1146–1150, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Blott, M. and A. Greenough. Oligohydramnios in the second trimester of pregnancy, fetal breathing and normal lung growth. Early Hum. Dev. 17: 37–40, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blott, M., A. Greenough, K.H. Nicolaides, and S. Campbell. The ultrasonographic assessment of the fetal thorax and fetal breathing movements in the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia. Early Hum. Dev. 21: 143–151, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Blott, M., A. Greenough, K.H. Nicolaides, G. Moscoso, D. Gibb, and S. Campbell. Fetal breathing movements as predictor of favourable pregnancy outcome after oligohydramnios due to membrane rupture in second trimester. Lancet 2: 129–131, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Blott, M., K.H. Nicolaides, and A. Greenough. Pleuroamniotic shunting for decompression of fetal pleural effusions. Obstet. Gynecol. 71: 798–800, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blott, M., K.H. Nicolaides, and A. Greenough. Postnatal respiratory function after chronic drainage of fetal pulmonary cyst. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159: 858–859, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bohn, D., M. Tamura, D. Perrin, G. Barker, and M. Rabinovitch. Ventilatory predictors of pulmonary hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia, confirmed by morphologic assessment. J. Pediatr. 111: 423–431, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brandsma, A.E., D. Tibboel, T.M. Vulto, J. Egberts, and A.T. Have-Opbroek. Ultrastructural features of alveolar epithelial cells in the late fetal pulmonary acinus: a comparison between normal and hypoplastic lungs using a rat model of pulmonary hypoplasia and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Microsc. Res. Tech. 26: 389–399, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brunette, D.M. Mechanical stretching increases the number of epithelial cells synthesizing DNA in culture. J. Cell. Sci. 69: 35–45, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Butler, N. and A.E. Claireaux. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia as a cause of perinatal mortality. Lancet 1: 659–663, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Castillo, R.A., L.D. Devoe, H.A. Hadi, S. Martin, and D. Geist. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis: clinical experience and factors related to a poor outcome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 155: 812–816, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chamberlain, D., A. Hislop, E. Hey, and L. Reid. Pulmonary hypoplasia in babies with severe rhesus isoimmunisation: a quantitative study. J. Pathol. 122: 43–52, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chitkara, U., J. Rosenburg, F.A. Chervenak, G.S. Berkowitz, R. Levine, R.M. Fagerstrom, B. Walker, and R.L. Berkowitz. Prenatal sonographic assessment of the fetal thorax: normal values. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 156: 1069–1074, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Collins, M.H., A. C. Moessinger, and J. Kleinerman. Fetal lung hypoplasia. In: CRC Handbook of Animal Models of Pulmonary Disease, edited by J.O. Cantor. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1989, p. 129–157.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Collins, M.H., A.C. Moessinger, J. Kleinerman, J. Bassi, P. Rosso, A.H. Collins, L.S. James, and W.A. Blanc. Fetal lung hypoplasia associated with maternal smoking: a morphometric analysis. Pediatr. Res. 19: 408–412, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D’Alton, M., B. Mercer, E. Riddick, and D. Dudley. Serial thoracic versus abdominal circumference ratios for the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia in premature rupture of the membranes remote from term. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 166: 658–663, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dickson, K.A. and R. Harding. Decline in lung liquid volume and secretion rate during oligohydramnios in fetal sheep. J. Appl. Physiol. 67: 2401–2407, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dickson, K.A. and R. Harding. Fetal breathing and pressures in the trachea and amniotic sac during oligohydramnios in sheep. J. Appl. Physiol. 70: 293–299, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    DiFiore, J.W., D.O. Fauza, R. Slavin, C.A. Peters, J.C. Fackler, and J.M. Wilson. Experimental fetal tracheal ligation reverses the structural and physiological effects of pulmonary hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J. Pediatr. Surg. 29: 248–257, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dorland, W.A.N. (ed.). Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1988.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dornan, J.C., J.W. K. Ritchie, and C. Meban. Fetal breathing movements and lung maturation in the congenitally abnormal human fetus. J. Dey. Physiol. 6: 367–375, 1984.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Editorial. Breath of life. Lancet 1: 305–306, 1989.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Emery, J.L. and A. Mithal. The number of alveoli in the terminal respiratory unit of man during late intra-uterine life and childhood. Ach. Dis. Child. 35: 544–547, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Falconer, A.R., R.A. Brown, P. Helms, T. Gordon, and J.A. Baron. Pulmonary sequelae in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Thorax 45: 126–129, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fewell, J.E., A.A. Hislop, J.A. Kitterman, and P. Johnson. Effect of tracheostomy on lung development in fetal lambs. J. Appl. Physiol. 55: 1103–1108, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fewell, J.E., C.C. Lee, and J.A. Kitterman. Effects of phrenic nerve section on the respiratory system of fetal lambs. J. Appl. Physiol. 51: 293–297, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fisk, N.M., D.G. Talbert, U. Nicolini, J. Vaughan, and C.H. Rodeck. Fetal breathing movements in oligohydramnios are not increased by amnioinfusion. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 99: 464–468, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fong, K., A. Ohlsson, and A. Zalev. Fetal thoracic circumference: a prospective cross-sectional study with real time ultrasound. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158: 1154–1160, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fortado, C.M. and J.G. Barnett. Effects of inhibiting DNA synthesis with hydroxyurea on stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth. Exp. Neurol. 87: 487–494, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fox, H.E. and S.S. Badalian. Ultrasound prediction of fetal pulmonary hypoplasia in pregnancies complicated by oligohydramnios and in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a review. Am. J. Perinatol. 11: 104–108, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Froh, D.K. and P.L. Ballard. Fetal lung maturation. In: Textbook of Fetal Physiology. edited by G.D. Thorburn and R. Harding. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 168–185.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gaultier, C. Malnutrition and lung growth. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 10: 278–286, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gembruch, U. and M. Hansmann. Artificial instillation of amniotic fluid as a new technique for the diagnostic evaluation of cases of oligohydramnios. Prenat. Diagn. 8: 33–35, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goldspink, D.F., V.M. Cox, S.K. Smith, L.A. Eaves, N.J. Osbaldeston, D.M. Lee, and D. Mantle. Muscle growth in response to mechanical stimuli. Am. J. Physiol. 268: E288 - E297, 1995.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goldstein, J.D. and L.M. Reid. Pulmonary hypoplasia resulting from phrenic nerve agenesis and diaphragmatic amyoplasia. J. Pediatr. 97: 282–287, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gould, S.J. Pulmonary hypoplasia, hyaline membrane disease and chronic lung disease. In: Fetus and Neonate: Breathing, edited by M.A. Hanson, J.A.D. Spencer, C.H. Rodeck, and D. Walters. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1994, p. 214–236.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Graves, G.R. and X.X. Baskett. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis: antenatal diagnosis and management. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 148: 563–565, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Greenough, A., M. Blott, K. Nicolaides, and S. Campbell. Interpretation of fetal breathing movements in oligohydramnios due to membrane rupture. Lancet 2: 182–183, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gruenwald, P. Hypoplasia of the lungs. J. Mt. Sinai Hosp. 24: 913–919, 1957.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Haidar, A., T.A. Ryder, and J.S. Wigglesworth. Failure of elastin development in hypoplastic lungs associated with oligohydramnios: an electronmicroscopic study. Histopathology 18: 471–473, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Han, R.N.N., J. Liu, A.K. Tanswell, and M. Post. Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and receptor: immunolocalization studies in developing rat fetal lung. Pediatr. Res. 31: 435–440, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Han, R.N.N., C. Mawdsley, P. Souza, A.K. Tanswell, and M. Post. Platelet-derived growth factors and growth-related genes in rat lung. III. Immunolocalization during fetal development. Pediatr. Res. 31: 323–329, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Harding, J.E. and B.M. Johnston. Nutrition and fetal growth. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 7: 539–547, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Harding, R. Sustained alterations in postnatal respiratory function following sub-optimal intra-uterine conditions. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 7: 431–441, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Harding, R. Fetal breathing movements. In: The Lung: Scientific Foundations, edited by R. G. Crystal, J.B. West, E.R. Weibel, and P.J. Barnes. Philadelphia: Lipincott-Raven, 1997, P. 2093–2103.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Harding, R. Fetal pulmonary development: the role of respiratory movements. Equine Vet. J. (Suppl.) 24: 32–39, 1997.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Harding, R., A.D. Bocking, and J.N. Sigger. Upper airway resistances in fetal sheep: the influence of breathing activity. J. Appl. Physiol. 60: 160–165, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Harding, R., A.D. Bocking, and J.N. Sigger. Influence of upper respiratory tract on liquid flow to and from fetal lungs. J. Appl. Physiol. 61: 68–74, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Harding, R., A.D. Bocking, J.N. Sigger, and P.J.D. Wickham. Composition and volume of fluid swallowed by fetal sheep. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. 69: 487–495, 1984.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Harding, R. and S.B. Hooper. Regulation of lung expansion and lung growth before birth. J. Appl. Physiol. 81: 209–224, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Harding, R., S.B. Hooper, and K.A. Dickson. A mechanism leading to reduced lung hypoplasia in fetal sheep during oligohydramnios. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 163: 1904–1913, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Harding, R., S.B. Hooper, and V.K. Han. Abolition of fetal breathing movements by spinal cord transection leads to reductions in fetal pulmonary expansion, growth and IGF-II gene expression. Pediatr. Res. 34: 148–153, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Harding, R. and G.C. Liggins. The influence of oligohydramnios on thoracic dimensions of fetal sheep. J. Dev. Physiol. 16: 355–361, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Harding, R. and G.C. Liggins. Changes in thoracic dimensions induced by breathing movements in fetal sheep. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 8: 117–124, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Harding, R., J.N. Sigger, P.J.D. Wickham, and A.D. Bocking. The regulation of flow of pulmonary fluid in fetal sheep. Respir. Physiol. 57: 47–59, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Harrison, M.R., N.S. Adzick, A.W. Flake, R.W. Jennings, J.M. Estes, T.E. MacGilliviray, J.T. Cheuh, and J.D. Goldberg. Correction of congenital diaphragmatic hernia VI: Hard-earned lessons. J. Pediatr. Surg. 28: 1411–1418, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Harrison, M.R., N.S. Adzick, R.W. Jennings, B.W. Duncan, M.A. Rosen, R.A. Filly, J.D. Goldberg, and A.A. deLorimier. Antenatal intervention for congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Lancet II: 965–967, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hashim, E., J.M. Laberge, M.F. Chen, and E.W. Quillen. Reversible tracheal obstruction in the fetal sheep: effects on tracheal fluid pressure and lung growth. J. Pediatr. Surg. 30: 1172–1177, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hedrick, M.H., J.M. Estes, K.M. Sullivan, J.F. Bealer, J.A. Kitterman, A.W. Flake, N.S. Adzick, and M.R. Harrison. Plug the lung until it grows (PLUG): a new method to treat congenital diaphragmatic hernia in utero. J. Pediatr. Surg. 29: 612–617, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hedrick, M.H., M.M. Fero, R.A. Filly, A.W. Flake, M.R. Harrison, and N.S. Adzick. Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS): a potential for perinatal intervention. J. Pediatr. Surg. 29: 271–274, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Higuchi, M., T. Kato, H. Yoshino, K. Matsuda, K. Gotoh, H. Hirano, K. Koyana, and M. Maki. The influence of experimentally produced oligohydramnios on lung growth and pulmonary surfactant content in fetal rabbits. J. Dev. Physiol. 16: 223–227, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hislop, A., D.V.I. Fairweather, R.J. Blackwell, and S. Howard. The effect of amniocentesis and drainage of amniotic fluid on lung development in Macaca fascicularis. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 91: 835–842, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hislop, A., E. Hey, and L. Reid. The lungs in congenital bilateral renal agenesis and dysplasia. Arch. Dis. Child. 54: 32–38, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hislop, A. and L. Reid. Persistent hypoplasia of the lung after repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Thorax 31: 450–455, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hooper, S.B., V.K. M. Han, and R. Harding. Changes in lung expansion alter pulmonary DNA synthesis and IGF-II gene expression in fetal sheep. Am. J. Physiol. (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol.) 265: L403 - L409, 1993.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hooper, S.B. and R. Harding. Fetal lung liquid: a major determinant of the growth and functional development of the fetal lung. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 22: 235–247, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Husain, A.N. and R.G. Hessel. Neonatal pulmonary hypoplasia: an autopsy study of 25 cases. Pediatr. Pathol. 13: 475–478, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Imanaka, M., S. Ogita, and T. Sugawa. Saline solution amnioinfusion for oligohydramnios after premature rupture of the membranes. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 161: 102–106, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Inselman, L.S., S.E. Fisher, H. Spencer, and M. Atkinson. Effect of intrauterine ethanol exposure on fetal lung growth. Pediatr. Res. 19: 12–14, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jakubowska, A.E., K. Billings, D.P. Johns, S.B. Hooper, and R. Harding. Respiratory function in lambs following prolonged oligohydramnios during late gestation. Pediatr. Res. 34: 611–617, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Joe, P., L.D. Wallen, C.J. Chapin, C.H. Lee, L. Allen, V.K. Han, L.G. Dobbs, S. Hawgood, and J.A. Kitterman. Effects of mechanical factors on growth and maturation of the lung in fetal sheep. Am. J. Physiol. (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol.) 272: L95 - L105, 1997.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Keramidaris, E., S.B. Hooper, and R. Harding. Effect of gestational age on the increase in fetal lung growth following tracheal obstruction. Exp. Lung Res. 22: 283–298, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    King, J.C., W. Mitzner, A.B. Butterfield, and J.T. Queenan. Effect of induced oligohydramnios on fetal lung development. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 154: 823–830, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    King, R.J., M.B. Jones, and P. Minoo. Regulation of lung cell proliferation by polypeptide growth factors. Am. J. Physiol. (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol.) 257: L23 - L38, 1989.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kitagawa, M., A. Hislop, E.A. Boyden, and L. Reid. Lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a quantitative study of airway, artery and alveolar development. Br. J. Surg. 58: 342–346, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kitterman, J.A. Physical factors and fetal lung growth. In: Respiratory Control and Lung Development in the Fetus and Newborn, edited by B.M. Johnston and P.D. Gluckman. Ithaca: Perinatology Press, 1986, pp. 63–85.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kitterman, J.A. Physiological factors in fetal lung growth. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 66: 1122–1128, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kitterman, J.A. The effects of mechanical forces on fetal lung growth. Clin. Perinatol. 23: 727–740, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Knox, W.F. and A.J. Barson. Pulmonary hypoplasia in a regional perinatal unit. Early Hum. Dev. 14: 33–42, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kubiak, J., M.M. Mitra, A.R. Steve, J.D. Hunt, P. Davies, and B.R. Pitt. Transforming growth factor-a gene expression in late-gestation fetal rat lung. Pediatr. Res. 31: 286–290, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Landau, L.I., P.D. Phelan, G.L. Gillam, E. Coombs, and H.R. Noblett. Respiratory function after repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Arch. Dis. Child. 52: 282–286, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Langer, R. and H.J. Kaufman. Primary (isolated) bilateral pulmonary hypoplasia: a comparative study of radiologic findings and autopsy results. Pediatr. Radiol. 16: 175–179, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Laudy, J.A.M., J.L.J. Gaillard, J.N.V.D. Anker, D. Tibboel, and J.W. Wladimiroff. Doppler ultrasound imaging: a new technique to detect lung hypoplasia before birth? Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 7: 189–192, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lauria, M.R., B. Gonik, and R. Romero. Pulmonary hypoplasia: pathogenesis, diagnosis and antenatal prediction. Obstet. Gynecol. 86: 466–475, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lechner, A.J. Perinatal age determines the severity of retarded lung development induced by starvation. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 131: 638–643, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Levin, D.L. Morphologic analysis of the pulmonary vascular bed in congenital left-sided diaphragmatic hernia. J. Pediatr. 92: 805–809, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Li, K., S.R. Nagalla, and E.R. Spindel. A rhesus monkey model to characterize the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in lung development. Evidence for stimulation of airway growth. J. Clin. Invest. 94: 1605–1615, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Liggins, G.C., G.A. Vilos, G.A. Campos, J.A. Kitterman, and C.H. Lee. The effect of spinal cord transection on lung development in fetal sheep. J. Dev. Physiol. 3: 267–274, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Liu, M., J. Liu, S. Buch, A.K. Tanswell, and M. Post. Antisense oligonucleotides for PDGF-B and its receptor inhibit mechanical strain-induced fetal lung cell growth. Am. J. Physiol. (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol.) 269: L178 - L184, 1995.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Liu, M., J. Xu, J. Liu, M.E. Kraw, A.K. Tanswell, and M. Post. Mechanical strain-enhanced fetal lung cell proliferation is mediated by phospholipase C and D and protein kinase C. Am. J. Physiol. (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol.) 268: L729 - L738, 1995.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Liu, M., J. Xu, A.K. Tanswell, and M. Post. Stretch-induced growth-promoting activities stimulate fetal rat lung epithelial cell proliferation. Exp. Lung Res. 19: 505–517, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Liu, M., J. Xu, A.K. Tanswell, and M. Post. Inhibition of mechanical strain-induced fetal rat lung cell proliferation by Gadolinium, a stretch-activated channel blocker. J. Cell Physiol. 161: 501–507, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Longaker, M.T., J.M. Laberge, J. Dansereau, J.C. Langer, T.M. Crombleholme, P.W. Callen, M.S. Golbus, and M.R. Harrison. Primary fetal hydrothorax: natural history and management. J. Pediatr. Surg. 24: 573–576, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lund, D.P., J. Mitchell, V. Kharasch, S. Quigley, M. Kuehn, and J.M. Wilson. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: the hidden morbidity. J. Pediatr. Surg. 29: 258–264, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Maloney, J.E., G. Bowes, V. Brodecky, X. Dennett, M. Wilkinson, and A. Walker. Function of the future respiratory system in the growth retarded fetal sheep. J. Develop. Physiol. 4: 279–297, 1982.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Miller, A.A., S.B. Hooper, and R. Harding. Role of fetal breathing movements in control of fetal lung distension. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2711–2717, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Moessinger, A.C. Fetal akinesia deformation sequence: an animal model. Pediatrics 7: 857–863, 1983.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Moessinger, A.C. Fetal lung growth in experimental utero-abdominal pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 68: 675–678, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Moessinger, A.C., J.E. Fewell, R.I. Stark, M.H. Collins, S.S. Daniel, M. Singh, W.A. Blanc, J. Kleinerman, and L.S. James. Lung hypoplasia and breathing movements following oligohydramnios in fetal lambs. In: The Physiological Development of the Fetus and Newborn. edited by C.T. Jones and P. Nathanielsz. New York: Academic Press, 1985, p. 293–298.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Moessinger, A.C., R. Harding, T.M. Adamson, M. Singh, and G.T. Kiu. Role of lung fluid volume in growth and maturation of the fetal sheep lung. J. Clin. Invest. 86: 1270–1277, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Moessinger, A.C., A. Santiago, N.S. Paneth, H.R. Rey, W.A. Blanc, and J.M. Driscoll. Time trends in necropsy prevalence and birth prevalence of lung hypoplasia. Pediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol. 3: 421–431, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Morales, W.J. and T. Talley. Premature rupture of membranes at 25 weeks: a management dilemma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 168: 503–507, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Morin, F.C. and K.R. Stenmark. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 151: 2010–2032, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mortola, J.P. Dynamics of breathing in newborn mammals. Physiol. Rev. 67: 187–243, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mustoe, T.A., T.H. Bartell, and W.L. Garner. Physical, biomechanical, histologic, and biochemical effects of rapid versus conventional tissue expansion. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 83: 687–691, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Mychaliska, G.B., K.M. Bullard, and M.R. Harrison. In utero management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Clin. Perinatol. 23: 823–841, 1996.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Nagai, A., W.M. Thurlbeck, A.H. Jansen, S. Ioffe, and V. Chernick. The effect of chronic biphrenectomy on lung growth and maturation in fetal lambs. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 137: 167–172, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nakamura, Y., K. Harada, I. Yamamoto, Y. Uemura, K. Okamoto, S. Fukuda, and T. Hashimoto. Human pulmonary hypoplasia. Achiv. Pathol. Lab. Med. 116: 635–642, 1992.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nardo, L., S.B. Hooper, and R. Harding. Lung hypoplasia can be reversed by short-term obstruction of the trachea in fetal sheep. Pediatr. Res. 38: 690–696, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Nardo, L., S.B. Hooper, and R. Harding. Stimulation of lung growth by tracheal obstruction in fetal sheep: relation to luminal pressure and lung liquid volume. Pediatr. Res. 43: 184–190, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Nijjar, M.S. and W.M. Thurlbeck. Alterations in enzymes related to adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate during compensatory growth of rat lung. Eur. J. Biochem. 105: 403–407, 1980.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Nimrod, C.,D. Davies, S. Iwanicki, J. Harder, D. Persaud, and S. Nicholson. Ultrasound prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia. Obstet. Gynecol. 68: 495–498, 1986.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nimrod, C., F. Varela-Gittings, G. Machin, D. Campbell, and R. Wesenberg. The effect of very prolonged membrane rupture on fetal development. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 148: 540–543, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ofulue, A.F., R. Matsui, and W.M. Thurlbeck. Role of calmodulin as an endogenous initiatory factor in compensatory lung growth after pneumonectomy. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 15: 145–150, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Olver, R.E., E.E. Schneeberger, and D.V. Walters. Epithelial solute permeability, ion transport and tight junction morphology in the developing lung of the fetal Iamb. J. Physiol. 315: 395–412, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    O’Toole, S., J.A. Sharma, H.L. Karamanoukian, B. Holm, R.G. Azizkhan, and P.L. Glick. Tracheal ligation does not correct the surfactant deficiency associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J. Pediatr. Surg. 31: 546–550, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Page, D.V. and J.T. Stocker. Anomalies associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 125: 216–221, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Pena, S.D.J. and M.H.K. Shokeir. Syndrome of camptodactyly, multiple ankyloses, facial anomalies and pulmonary hypoplasia. J. Pediatr. 85: 373–374, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Piedboeuf, B., J.M. Laberge, M. Gamache, P. Petrov, S. Belanger, M.F. Chen, E. Hashim, G. Ghitulescu, and F. Possmayer. Deleterious effect of tracheal obstruction on type II pneumocytes in fetal sheep. Pediatr. Res. 41: 473–479, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Potter, E.L. Bilateral renal agenesis. J. Pediatr. 29: 68–76, 1946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Pringle, K.C. Human fetal lung development and related animal models. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 29: 502–513, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Rannels, D.G. Role of physical forces in compensatory growth of the lung. Am. J. Physiol. (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol.) 257: L179 - L189, 1989.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Reale, F.R. and J.R. Esterly. Pulmonary hypoplasia: a morphometric study of the lungs of infants with diaphragmatic hernia, anencephaly, and renal malformations. Pediatrics 51: 91–96, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rees, S., J. Ng, K. Dickson, T. Nicholas, and R. Harding. Growth retardation and the development of the respiratory system in fetal sheep. Early Hum. Dev. 26: 13–27, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Reuss, A., J.W. Valdimiroff, R.J. Scholtmeijer, P.A. Stewart, P.J. Sauer, and M.F. Niermeijer. Prenatal evaluation and outcome of fetal obstructive uropathies. Prenat. Diagn. 8: 93–102, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Reynolds, M., S.R. Luck, and R. Lappen. The “critical” neonate with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a 21-year perspective. J. Pediatr. Surg. 19: 364–369, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Richards, D.S. Complications of prolonged PROM and oligohydramnios. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 34: 759–768, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Riley, D.J., D.E. Rannels, R.B. Low, L. Jensen, and T.P. Jacobs. Effect of physical forces on lung structure, function and metabolism. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 142: 910–914, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Roberts, A.B., I. Goldstein, R. Romero, and J.C. Hobbins. Fetal breathing movements after preterm premature rupture of membranes. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 164: 821–825, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Roberts, A.B. and J. Mitchell. Pulmonary hypoplasia and fetal breathing in preterm premature rupture of membranes. Early Hum. Dev. 41: 27–37, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Roberts, A.B. and J.M. Mitchell. Direct ultrasonographic measurement of fetal lung length in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by prolonged rupture of membranes. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 163: 1560–1566, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Rotschild, A., E.W. Ling, M.L. Puterman, and D. Farquharson. Neonatal outcome after prolonged preterm rupture of the membranes. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 162: 46–52, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Russo, L.A., S.R. Rannels, K.S. Laslow, and D.E. Rannels. Stretch-related changes in lung cAMP after partial pneumonectomy. Am. J. Physiol. 257: E261 - E268, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sanderson, M.J., A.C. Charles, and E.R. Dirksen. Mechanical stimulation and intercellular communication increases intracellular Cat+ in epithelial cells. Cell Regul. 1: 585–596, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Savich, R.D., F.A. Guerra, C.C. Lee, J.F. Padbury, and J.A. Kitterman. Effects of acute oligohydramnios on respiratory system of fetal sheep. J. Appl. Physiol. 73: 610–617, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Scurry, J.P., T.M. Adamson, and L.J. Cussen. Fetal lung growth in laryngeal atresia and tracheal agenesis. Aust. Paediatr. J. 25: 47–51, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Sherer, D.M., J.M. Davis, and J.R.J. Woods. Pulmonary hypoplasia: a review. Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 45: 792–803, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Smith, B.T. and M. Post. Fibroblast-pneumonocyte factor. Am. J. Physiol. (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol.) 257: L174 - L178, 1989.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Smith, B.T., M. Post, and A.D. Stiles. Paracrine regulation of lung growth and maturation: the substrate of normal functional development. In: Abnormal Functional Development of the Heart, Lungs, and Kidneys: Approaches to Functional Teratology. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1983, p. 135–141.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Somasundaram, K. and K. Prathap. The effect of intrauterine phrenic nerve division on the development of the lungs and diaphragm in fetal rabbits. Aust. N. Z. J. Surg. 45: 308–309, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Squier, C.A. The stretching of mouse skin in vivo: effect of epidermal proliferation and thickness. J. Appl. Physiol. 58: 452–458, 1985.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Stiles, A.D., I.R. Sosenko, B.T. Smith, and A.J. D’Ercole. Rapid rise in pulmonary somatomedin-C (SMC) levels in the regenerating lung. Pediatr. Res. 17: 391A, 1993.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Stocker, J.T., J.E.R. Madewell, and R.M. Drake. Congential cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung: classification and morphological spectrum. Hum. Pathol. 8: 155–171, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Strandjord, T.P., J.G. Clark, and D.K. Madtes. Expression of TGF-alpha, EGF, and EGF receptor in fetal rat lung. Am. J. Physiol. (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol.) 267: L384 — L389, 1994.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Strang, L.B. Fetal lung liquid: secretion and reabsorption. Physiol. Rev. 71: 991–1016, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Suen, H.C., K.D. Bloch, and P.K. Donahoe. Antenatal glucocorticoid corrects pulmonary immaturity in experimentally induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia in rats. Pediatr. Res. 523–529, 1994.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Sultana, Z., V.H. Talib, S.D. Patil, M.S. Deshpande, and K.D. Sharma. Hypoplasia of the lungs in the newborn. Indian J. Pediatr. 40: 419–421, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Sumpio, B.E., A.J. Banes, L.G. Levin, and G. Johnson. Mechanical stress stimulates aortic endothelial cells to proliferate. J. Vasc. Surg. 6: 252–256, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Swischuk, L.E., C.J. Richardson, M.M. Nichols, and M.J. Ingman. Primary pulmonary hypoplasia in the neonate. J. Pediatr. 95: 573–577, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Thibeault, D.W., E.C. Beatty, R.T. Hall, S.K. Bowen, and D.H. O’Niell. Neonatal pulmonary hypoplasia with premature rupture of fetal membranes and oligohydramnios. J. Pediatr. 107: 273–277, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Thurlbeck, W.M. Prematurity and the developing lung. Clin. Perinatol. 19: 497–519, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Thurlbeck, W.M., K. Kida, C. Langston, M.J. Cowan, J.A. Kitterman, W. Tooley, and H. Bryan. Postnatal lung growth after repair of diaphragmatic hernia. Thorax 34: 338–343, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Van Eyck, J., K. Van Mooren, and J.W. Wladimiroff. Ductus arteriosus flow velocity modulation by fetal breathing movements as a measure of fetal lung development. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 163: 558–566, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Vintzileos, A.M., W.A. Campbell, J.F. Rodis, D.J. Nochimson, M.G. Pinette, and B.M. Petrikovsky. Comparison of six different ultrasonographic methods for predicting lethal fetal pulmonary hypoplasia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 161: 606–612, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Wallen, L.D. and V.K. Han. Spatial and temporal distribution of insulin-like growth factors I and II during development of rat lung. Am. J. Physiol. (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol.) 267: L531 - L542, 1994.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Wigglesworth, J.S. Pathology of the lung in the fetus and neonate, with particular reference to problems of growth and maturation. Histopathology 11: 671–689, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Wigglesworth, J.S. and R. Desai. Effects on lung growth of cervical cord section in the rabbit fetus. Early Hum. Dev. 3: 51–65, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Wigglesworth, J.S. and R. Desai. Use of DNA estimation for growth assessment in normal and hypoplastic fetal lungs. Arch. Dis. Child. 56: 601–605, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Wigglesworth, J.S. and R. Desai. Is fetal respiratory function a major determinant of perinatal survival? Lancet 1: 264–267, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Wigglesworth, J.S., R. Desai, and P. Guerrini. Fetal lung hypoplasia: biochemical and structural variations and their possible significance. Arch. Dis. Child. 56: 606–615, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Wigglesworth, J.S., R. Desai, and A.A. Hislop. Fetal lung growth in congenital laryngeal atresia. Pediatr. Pathol. 7: 515–525, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wirtz, H.R.W. and L.G. Dobbs. Calcium mobilization and exocytosis after one mechanical stretch of lung epithelial cells. Science 250: 1266–1269, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Yoshimura, S., H. Masuzaki, K. Miura, H. Hayashi, H. Gotoh, and T. Ishimaru. The effects of oligohydramnios and cervical cord transection on lung growth in experimental pulmonary hypoplasia in rabbits. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177: 72–77, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Zhang, S., V. Garbutt, and J.T. McBride. Strain-induced growth of the immature lung. J. Appl. Physiol. 81: 1471–1476, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Physiological Society 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Harding
  • Cheryl Albuquerque

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations