Endothelin pp 238-257 | Cite as

Endothelin and the Homeostatic Function of the Endothelial Cell

  • Regina M. Botting
  • John R. Vane
Part of the Clinical Physiology Series book series (CLINPHY)


Cultured porcine endothelial cells release a peptide into the culture medium that causes slow, long-lasting contractions of isolated vascular strips.17 This peptide was isolated, characterized, and synthesized in 1988 by Yanagisawa et al.,66 who named it “endothelin.” The endothelin from porcine endothelial cells consists of a chain of 21 amino acids held together by two disulfide bridges and is generated from a precursor molecule by a previously unknown protease. It was subsequently discovered that three isomers of endothelin, expressed by three different genes, are probably present in all mammalian species.22 Endothelin-1 is the only one made by endothelial cells and was first called “porcine” or “human” endothelin. Endothelin-2 is more potent than endothelin-1 and has a longer duration of action on blood pressure. It is not known where it is made except perhaps in kidney cells.27 Endothelin-3, first called “rat” endothelin, may be associated with nervous tissue.67 The structure of endothelin-3 differs from that of endothelin-1 by 6 of the 21 amino acid residues and consists of (Thr2, Phe4, Thr5, Tyr6, Lys7, Tyr14)-substituted endothelin-1. Endothelin-2 differs from endothelin-1 by two amino acids and corresponds to (Trp6, Leu7)-substituted endothelin-1.


Platelet Aggregation Sodium Nitroprusside Depressor Response Homeostatic Function Perfuse Kidney 
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© American Physiological Society 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Regina M. Botting
  • John R. Vane

There are no affiliations available

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