Fatal Pain Relief

Local anesthetics, intrathecal morphine
  • Matthew M. Kumar
  • Richard Levi Boortz-Marx


This case discusses a synergistic pharmacodynamic interaction between morphine and bupivacaine, resulting in death. This drug pair eliminated both central and peripheral respiratory drive.


Respiratory depressant Respiratory stimulant Intrathecal narcotics Morphine Substance P NK1 receptor Opiates Opioid dependence 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology & Critical Care MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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