On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) was named Chancellor of the Reich. Up until the Reichstag elections on March 5, 1933, Sommerfeld may still have foreseen a relatively brief reign for “Adolf the Great,” as he liked jokingly to refer to the new Chancellor. Hitler’s predecessors, Franz von Papen (1879–1969) and Kurt von Schleicher (1882–1934), after all, had held office only a few months. The National Socialists had suffered substantial electoral losses in the last Reichstag election in 1932. On March 5, 1933, however, the NSDAP more than made up for the electoral losses of the previous year, and with their “Führer” as Chancellor, the ascendency of National Socialism nationally too now seemed certain. Ensuing events left no doubt that the National Socialists were putting their “seizure of power” palpably and comprehensively into effect across all areas of society. Unless they sought refuge abroad, political opponents were locked into concentration camps or murdered. On April 1, 1933, through acts of harassment and willful destruction, it was made palpable to Jewish owners of companies, medical practices, and other facilities what awaited them in Nazi Germany unless they withdrew from business life.