Advertisement

Health Reform: A Bridge to Health Equity

  • Daniel E. DawesEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Issues in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ICCP)

Abstract

Racial and ethnic minorities and other vulnerable populations have long experienced severe and pervasive disparities in health status and outcomes, and faced barriers to obtaining quality health care and public health services. This is especially evident in behavioral health. According to several ground-breaking reports, African Americans, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asian/Pacific Islander Americans, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are particularly at risk for mental illness, substance use, and other chronic conditions (Institute of Medicine, 2002, 2011; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001).

Keywords

Behavioral Health Health Disparity Health Equity Comparative Effectiveness Research Serious Mental Illness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2004). National healthcare disparities report: Summary. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved August 22, 2011, from http://www.archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr04/nhdr2004.pdf
  2. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2006). National healthcare disparities report. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved August 22, 2011, from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr06/nhdr06.htm
  3. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011a). National healthcare disparities report. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/qrdr11.htm
  4. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011b). National healthcare quality report. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/qrdr11.htm
  5. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012). Clinician summary: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved September 10, 2012, from http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/ehc/products/191/1149/adhd_clin_fin_to_post.pdf
  6. American Psychological Association. (2009). Psychological and behavioral perspectives on health disparities. Communique. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  7. Breakey, W. R., Fischer, P. J., Kramer, M., Nestadt, G., Romanoski, A. J., Ross, A., et al. (1989). Health and mental health problems of homeless men and women in Baltimore. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 1352–1357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Breslau, J., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Kendler, K., Maxwell, S., Williams, D., & Kessler, R. (2006). Specifying race-ethnic differences in risk for psychiatric disorder in a USA national sample. Psychological Medicine, 36(1), 57–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Center for Disease Control (CDC). (2007). Table 61. Health, United States, 2007 with chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD: CDC.Google Scholar
  10. Center for Disease Control (CDC). (2012a). National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2011: With special feature on socioeconomic status and health. Hyattsville, MD: CDC. Retrieved May 29, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus11.pdf#listfigures
  11. Center for Disease Control (CDC). (2012b). Childhood obesity facts. Hyattsville, MD: CDC. Retrieved May 29, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html
  12. Cochran, S., Sullivan, J., & Mays, V. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health services use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooper, J., Aratani, Y., Knitzer, J., Douglas-Hall, A., Masi, R., Banghart, P., et al. (2008). Unclaimed children revisited: The status of children’s mental health policy in the United States. New York, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty.Google Scholar
  14. Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Pub.L. 111-152).Google Scholar
  15. Institute of Medicine. (2002). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  16. Institute of Medicine. (2009). Race, ethnicity, and language data: Standardization for health care quality improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  17. Institute of Medicine. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people: Building a foundation to better health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  18. Janssen, I., Craig, W., Boyce, W., & Pickett, W. (2004). Associations between overweight and obesity with bullying behaviors in school-aged children. Pediatrics, 113, 1187–1194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koegel, P. M., Burnam, A., & Farr, R. K. (1988). The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders among homeless individual in the inner city of Los Angeles. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 1085–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. LaVeist, T., Gaskin, D., & Richard, P. (2009). The economic burden of health inequalities in the United States. Joint center for political and economic studies report, Sept 2009.Google Scholar
  21. Low, N., & Hardy, J. (2007). Psychiatric disorder criteria and their application to research in different racial groups. BMC Psychiatry, 7, 1. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-7-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Minority Health and Health Disparities Research and Education Act of 2000 (Pub.L. 106-525, 114 Stat. 2495).Google Scholar
  23. National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2008). Mental illness: Facts and numbers. Arlington, VA: National Alliance on Mental Illness. Retrieved September 7, 2012, from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=About_Mental_Illness&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=53155
  24. National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors. (2008). Measurement of health status for people with serious mental illnesses. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors. Retrieved September 7, 2012, from http://www.nasmhpd.org/docs/publications/MDCdocs/NASMHPD%20Medical%20Directors%20Health%20Indicators%20Report%2011-19-08.pdf
  25. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (11-393)Google Scholar
  26. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub.L. 111-148).Google Scholar
  27. Stagman, S., & Cooper, J. (2010). Children’s mental health: What every policymaker should know. New York, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty.Google Scholar
  28. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2003). Risk of suicide among Hispanic females aged 12 to 17. National household survey on drug abuse report. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k3/LatinaSuicide/LatinaSuicide.htm
  29. Swartz, M., Wagner, R., Swanson, J., Burns, B., George, L., & Padgett, D. (1998). Administrative update: Utilization of services. Community Mental Health Journal, 34(2), 133–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Teplin, L. A. (1990). The prevalence of severe mental disorder among male urban jail detainees: Comparison with the epidemiologic catchment area program. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 663–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Public Health Service, & Office of the Surgeon General. (1999). Mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service.Google Scholar
  32. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Public Health Service, & Office of the Surgeon General. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race and ethnicity—A supplement to mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services.Google Scholar
  33. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), & New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the promise: Transforming mental health care in America—Final report. Rockville, MD: New Freedom Commission on Mental Health.Google Scholar
  34. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Advisory Committee on Minority Health, Office of Minority Health. (2009). Ensuring that health care reform will meet the health care needs of minority communities and eliminate health disparities: A statement of principles and recommendations. Rockville, MD: Office of Minority Health. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/Assets/pdf/Checked/1/ACMH_HealthCareAccessReport.pdf
  35. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of Minority Health. (2012). Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander profile. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved May 29, 2012, from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/content.aspx?lvl=3&lvlID=4&ID=8593
  36. Vernez, G. M., Burnam, M. A., McGlynn, E. A., Trude, S., & Mittman, B. (1988). Review of California’s program for the homeless mentally ill disabled (Report no. R3631-CDMH). Santa Monica, CA: RAND.Google Scholar
  37. Wells, K., Klap, R., Koike, A., & Sherbourne, C. (2001). Ethnic disparities in unmet need for alcoholism, drug abuse, and mental health care. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 2027–2032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Williams, D., Gonzalez, H., Neighbors, H., Nesse, R., Abelson, J., Sweetman, J., et al. (2007). Prevalence and distribution of major depressive disorder in African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and Non-Hispanic Whites: Results from the National Survey of American Life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 305–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Working Group on Health Disparities and Health ReformWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations