Known Vaccine-Associated Adverse Events

  • B. A. PahudEmail author
  • C. J. Harrison


The most beneficial worldwide health interventions in the twentieth century include vaccines. Despite and in part because of their success, adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) are increasingly scrutinized. Thus, there is a need for practitioners to be aware of common and expected as well as serious or more publicized AEFIs. Likewise, practitioners need to be aware of the challenges involved in differentiating AEFIs truly caused by vaccines (causally related) from events that coincidently occur soon after vaccines (temporally related). Consequently, despite being listed on Internet sites or in databases, e.g., Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), some AEFIs may be temporally related but not causally related to vaccines, e.g., autism.

The first section of the chapter reviews common but transient AEFIs that are expected to have few if any sequelae, e.g., fever, pain at the injection site, local reactions, febrile seizures, syncope after injection. In the second section, more serious and less common reactions are reviewed, e.g., injection sites abscesses, extreme local swelling, neurological AEFIs, anaphylaxis/hypersensitivity. The third section reviews reactions peculiar to selected vaccines, e.g., hypotonic hyporesponsive episodes (HHE) following whole cell or acellular pertussis-containing vaccines. Next is a short section on special vaccines. The chapter concludes with a section on causality and the concept of genetic predisposition to certain diseases that unfold coincidentally in the first years of life when children receive many vaccines. The latter section was added because it is challenging to help families understand that some of the events that present during the first years of life are not causally related to a vaccine simply because they occur soon after them.


Influenza Vaccine Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Febrile Seizure Varicella Vaccine Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Hinman AR, Orenstein WA, Schuchat A. Vaccine-preventable diseases, immunizations, and MMWR—1961–2011. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2011;60 Suppl 4:49–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In: Atkinson W, Wolfe C, Hamborsky J, editors. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fritsche PJ, Helbling A, Ballmer-Weber BK. Vaccine hypersensitivity—update and overview. Swiss Med Wkly. 2010;140(17–18):238–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Prymula R, Siegrist CA, Chlibek R, et al. Effect of prophylactic paracetamol administration at time of vaccination on febrile reactions and antibody responses in children: two open-label, randomised controlled trials. Lancet. 2009;374(9698):1339–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jean-Philippe P, Freedman A, Chang MW, et al. Severe varicella caused by varicella-vaccine strain in a child with significant T-cell dysfunction. Pediatrics. 2007;120(5):e1345–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Levy O, Orange JS, Hibberd P, et al. Disseminated varicella infection due to the vaccine strain of varicella-zoster virus, in a patient with a novel deficiency in natural killer T cells. J Infect Dis. 2003;188(7):948–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Theodoridou K, Papaevangelou V, Papadogeorgaki E, et al. Actinic varicella vaccine rash. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(12):1116–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Varicella zoster virus vaccine live: actinic varicella vaccine rash in an infant: case report. React Wkly 2012; (1386):35. Available at:
  9. 9.
    Subcommitte on Febrile Seizures, American Academy of Pediatrics. Febrile seizures: guideline for the neurodiagnostic evaluation of the child with a simple febrile seizure. Pediatrics. 2011;127(2):389–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Committee to review adverse effects of vaccines, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice. In: Stratton K, Ford A, Rusch E, Clayton EW, editors. Adverse effects of vaccines: evidence and causality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011. Available at:
  11. 11.
    Verity CM, Butler NR, Golding J. Febrile convulsions in a national cohort followed up from birth. I—prevalence and recurrence in the first five years of life. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985;290(6478):1307–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tsuboi T, Endo S. Genetic studies of febrile convulsions: analysis of twin and family data. Epilepsy Res Suppl. 1991;4:119–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kroger AT, Atkinson WL, Marcuse EK, Pickering LK. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55(RR-15):1–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Klein NP, Fireman B, Yih WK, et al. Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella combination vaccine and the risk of febrile seizures. Pediatrics. 2010;126(1):e1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marin M, Broder KR, Temte JL, Snider DE, Seward JF. Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59(RR-3):1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Olde Nordkamp LRA, Wieling W, Zwinderman AH, Wilde AAM, van Dijk N. Genetic aspects of vasovagal syncope: a systematic review of current evidence. Europace. 2009;11(4):414–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arthur W, Kaye GC. The pathophysiology of common causes of syncope. Postgrad Med J. 2000;76(902):750–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grubb BP, Olshansky B. Syncope mechanisms and management. 2005; Available at:
  19. 19.
    FDA. Code of Federal Regulations; postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences. 2010; Available at:
  20. 20.
    Stetler HC, Garbe PL, Dwyer DM, et al. Outbreaks of group A streptococcal abscesses following diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-pertussis vaccination. Pediatrics. 1985;75(2):299–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bernier RH, Frank Jr JA, Nolan Jr TF. Abscesses complicating DTP vaccination. Am J Dis Child. 1981;135(9):826–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lehman HK, Faden HS, Fang YV, Ballow M. A case of recurrent sterile abscesses following vaccination: delayed hypersensitivity to aluminum. J Pediatr. 2008;152(1):133–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Klein NP, Edwards KM, Sparks RC, Dekker CL. Recurrent sterile abscesses following aluminium adjuvant-containing vaccines. BMJ Case Rep. 2009;2009.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rennels MB. Extensive swelling reactions occurring after booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2003;14(3):196–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rennels MB, Black S, Woo EJ, Campbell S, Edwards KM. Safety of a fifth dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine in children experiencing extensive, local reactions to the fourth dose. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27(5):464–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bodor M, Montalvo E. Vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction. Vaccine. 2007;25(4):585–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Atanasoff S, Ryan T, Lightfoot R, Johann-Liang R. Shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA). Vaccine. 2010;28(51):8049–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bruehl S. An update on the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome. Anesthesiology. 2010;113(3):713–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rowhani-Rahbar A, Klein NP, Lewis N, et al. Immunization and Bell’s palsy in children: a case-centered analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175(9):878–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Haber P, Sejvar J, Mikaeloff Y, DeStefano F. Vaccines and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Drug Saf. 2009;32(4):309–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schonberger LB, Bregman DJ, Sullivan-Bolyai JZ, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome following vaccination in the National Influenza Immunization Program, United States, 1976–1977. Am J Epidemiol. 1979;110(2):105–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liang XF, Wang HQ, Wang JZ, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 vaccines in China: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375(9708):56–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dieleman J, Romio S, Johansen K, Weibel D, Bonhoeffer J, Sturkenboom M. Guillain-Barré syndrome and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine: multinational case-control study in Europe. BMJ. 2011;343:d3908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Deeks SL, Lim GH, Simpson MA, et al. Estimating background rates of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Ontario in order to respond to safety concerns during pandemic H1N1/09 immunization campaign. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Choe YJ, Cho H, Bae GR, Lee JK. Guillain-Barré syndrome following receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine in Korea with an emphasis on Brighton Collaboration case definition. Vaccine. 2011;29(11):2066–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vellozzi C, Broder KR, Haber P, et al. Adverse events following influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, United States, October 1, 2009–January 31, 2010. Vaccine. 2010;28(45):7248–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wood RA, Berger M, Dreskin SC, et al. An algorithm for treatment of patients with hypersensitivity reactions after vaccines. Pediatrics. 2008;122(3):e771–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bohlke K, Davis RL, Marcy SM, et al. Risk of anaphylaxis after vaccination of children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2003;112(4):815–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sampson HA, Muñoz-Furlong A, Campbell RL, et al. Second symposium on the definition and management of anaphylaxis: summary report—Second National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network symposium. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117(2):391–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Simons FE. Anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(2 Suppl 2):S161–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stratton KR, Howe CJ, Johnston RB, Institue of Medicine (U.S.), Vaccine Safety Committee, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.). Adverse events associated with childhood vaccines: evidence bearing on causality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sakaguchi M, Nakayama T, Fujita H, Toda M, Inouye S. Minimum estimated incidence in Japan of anaphylaxis to live virus vaccines including gelatin. Vaccine. 2000;19(4–5):431–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Systemic adverse effects of hepatitis B vaccines are rare. Prescrire Int. 2004;13(74):218–23.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ball R, Braun MM, Mootrey GT. Safety data on meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(9):1273–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(33):1128–32.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Greenhawt MJ, Li JT, Bernstein DI, et al. Administering influenza vaccine to egg allergic recipients: a focused practice parameter update. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;106(1):11–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bonhoeffer J, Gold MS, Heijbel H, et al. Hypotonic-Hyporesponsive Episode (HHE) as an adverse event following immunization: case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation. Vaccine. 2004;22(5–6):5–6.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cody CL, Baraff LJ, Cherry JD, Marcy SM, Manclark CR. Nature and rates of adverse reactions associated with DTP and DT immunizations in infants and children. Pediatrics. 1981;68(5):650–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    DuVernoy TS, Braun MM. Hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1996–1998. Pediatrics. 2000;106(4):E52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Greco D, Salmaso S, Mastrantonio P, et al. A controlled trial of two acellular vaccines and one whole-cell vaccine against pertussis. Progetto Pertosse Working Group. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(6):341–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Saux NL, Barrowman NJ, Moore DL, Whiting S, Scheifele D, Halperin S. Decrease in hospital admissions for febrile seizures and reports of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes presenting to hospital emergency departments since switching to acellular pertussis vaccine in Canada: a report from IMPACT. Pediatrics. 2003;112(5):1170.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Vermeer-de Bondt PE, Labadie J, Rumke HC. Rate of recurrent collapse after vaccination with whole cell pertussis vaccine: follow up study. BMJ. 1998;316(7135):902–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Goodwin H, Nash M, Gold M, Heath TC, Burgess MA. Vaccination of children following a previous hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode. J Paediatr Child Health. 1999;35(6):549–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Alderslade R, Bellman MH, Rawson NSB, Ross EM, Miller DL. The National Childhood Encephalopathy Study: A report on 1000 cases of serious neurological disorders in infants and young children from the NCES research team. In: Department of Health and Social Security. Whooping Cough: Reports from the Committee on the Safety of Medicines and the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office; 1981. The book where I retireved this from was DPT Vaccines and Chronic Nervous System Dysfunction” A New analysis (1994) available at:
  55. 55.
    Moore DL, Le Saux N, Scheifele D, Halperin SA. Lack of evidence of encephalopathy related to pertussis vaccine: active surveillance by IMPACT, Canada, 1993–2002. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23(6):568–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ray P, Hayward J, Michelson D, et al. Encephalopathy after whole-cell pertussis or measles vaccination: lack of evidence for a causal association in a retrospective case-control study. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25(9):768–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Berkovic SF, Harkin L, McMahon JM, et al. De-novo mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN1A in alleged vaccine encephalopathy: a retrospective study. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5(6):488–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Reyes IS, Hsieh DT, Laux LC, Wilfong AA. Alleged cases of vaccine encephalopathy rediagnosed years later as Dravet Syndrome. Pediatrics. 2011;128(3):e699–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tuttle J, Chen RT, Rantala H, Cherry JD, Rhodes PH, Hadler S. The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccines in adults and children in the United States. Am J Public Health. 1997;87(12):2045–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nordin JD, Yih WK, Kulldorff M, Weintraub E. Tdap and GBS letter. Vaccine. 2011;29(6):1122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mantadakis E, Farmaki E, Buchanan GR. Thrombocytopenic purpura after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: a systematic review of the literature and guidance for management. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):623–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bibby AC, Farrell A, Cummins M, Erlewyn-Lajeunesse M. Is MMR immunisation safe in chronic Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura? Arch Dis Child. 2008;93(4):354–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Black C, Kaye JA, Jick H. MMR vaccine and idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;55(1):107–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    France EK, Glanz J, Xu S, et al. Risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura after measles-mumps-rubella immunization in children. Pediatrics. 2008;121(3):e687–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Miller E, Waight P, Farrington CP, Andrews N, Stowe J, Taylor B. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and MMR vaccine. Arch Dis Child. 2001;84(3):227–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rajantie J, Zeller B, Treutiger I, Rosthoj S. Vaccination associated thrombocytopenic purpura in children. Vaccine. 2007;25(10):1838–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stowe J, Kafatos G, Andrews N, Miller E. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and the second dose of MMR. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93(2):182–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    O’Leary ST, Daley MF, Glanz JM, et al. The risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura after vaccination in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2012;129(2):248–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Demicheli V, Rivetti A, Debalini MG, Di Pietrantonj C. Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;2, CD004407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    da Silveira CM, Kmetzsch CI, Mohrdieck R, Sperb AF, Prevots DR. The risk of aseptic meningitis associated with the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain following mass vaccination with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1997. Int J Epidemiol. 2002;31(5):978–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vestergaard M, Hviid A, Madsen KM, et al. MMR vaccination and febrile seizures. JAMA. 2004;292(3):351–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Barlow WE, Davis RL, Glasser JW, et al. The risk of seizures after receipt of whole-cell pertussis or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(9):656–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Childhood Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, Vaccine Injury Table. Available at:
  74. 74.
    Weibel RE, Caserta V, Benor DE, Evans G. Acute encephalopathy followed by permanent brain injury or death associated with further attenuated measles vaccines: a review of claims submitted to the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Pediatrics. 1998;101(3 Pt 1):383–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    CDC. Update: vaccine side effects, adverse reactions, contraindications, and precautions. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 1996;45:1–35.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mustafa MM, Weitman SD, Winick NJ, Bellini WJ, Timmons CF, Siegel JD. Subacute measles encephalitis in the young immunocompromised host: report of two cases diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction and treated with Ribavirin and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis. 1993;16(5):654–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bitnun A, Shannon P, Durward A, et al. Measles inclusion-body encephalitis caused by the vaccine strain of measles virus. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29(4):855–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Baram TZ, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Xie ZD, et al. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in an infant: diagnostic role of viral genome analysis. Ann Neurol. 1994;36(1):103–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Poon TP, Tchertkoff V, Win H. Subacute measles encephalitis with AIDS diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy. A case report. Acta Cytol. 1998;42(3):729–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Monafo WJ, Haslam DB, Roberts RL, Zaki SR, Bellini WJ, Coffin CM. Disseminated measles infection after vaccination in a child with a congenital immunodeficiency. J Pediatr. 1994;124(2):273–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Valmari P, Lanning M, Tuokko H, Kouvalainen K. Measles virus in the cerebrospinal fluid in postvaccination immunosuppressive measles encephalopathy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987;6(1):59–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rota JS, Wang ZD, Rota PA, Bellini WJ. Comparison of sequences of the H, F, and N coding genes of measles virus vaccine strains. Virus Res. 1994;31(3):317–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Galea SA, Sweet A, Beninger P, et al. The safety profile of varicella vaccine: a 10-year review. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S165–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Goulleret N, Mauvisseau E, Essevaz-Roulet M, Quinlivan M, Breuer J. Safety profile of live varicella virus vaccine (Oka/Merck): five-year results of the European Varicella Zoster Virus Identification Program (EU VZVIP). Vaccine. 2010;28(36):5878–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wise RP, Salive ME, Braun MM, et al. Postlicensure safety surveillance for varicella vaccine. JAMA. 2000;284(10):1271–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sharrar RG, LaRussa P, Galea SA, et al. The postmarketing safety profile of varicella vaccine. Vaccine. 2000;19(7–8):916–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bryan CJ, Prichard MN, Daily S, et al. Acyclovir-resistant chronic verrucous vaccine strain varicella in a patient with neuroblastoma. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27(10):946–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ghaffar F, Carrick K, Rogers BB, Margraf LR, Krisher K, Ramilo O. Disseminated infection with varicella-zoster virus vaccine strain presenting as hepatitis in a child with adenosine deaminase deficiency. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19(8):764–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chaves SS, Zhang J, Civen R, et al. Varicella disease among vaccinated persons: clinical and epidemiological characteristics, 1997–2005. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S127–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hardy I, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, LaRussa P. The incidence of zoster after immunization with live attenuated varicella vaccine. A study in children with leukemia. Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(22):1545–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chouliaras G, Spoulou V, Quinlivan M, Breuer J, Theodoridou M. Vaccine-associated herpes zoster ophthalmicus [correction of opthalmicus] and encephalitis in an immunocompetent child. Pediatrics. 2010;125(4):e969–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pahud BA, Glaser CA, Dekker CL, Arvin AM, Schmid DS. Varicella zoster disease of the central nervous system: epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features 10 years after the introduction of the varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2011;203(3):316–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    CDC. Paralytic poliomyelitis—United States, 1980–1994. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997;46(4):79–83.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    CDC. Imported vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis—United States, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55(4):97–9.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Prevention of poliomyelitis: recommendations for use of only inactivated poliovirus vaccine for routine immunization. Committee on Infectious Diseases. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 1999;104(6):1404–6.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wattigney WA, Mootrey GT, Braun MM, Chen RT. Surveillance for poliovirus vaccine adverse events, 1991 to 1998: impact of a sequential vaccination schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by oral poliovirus vaccine. Pediatrics. 2001;107(5):E83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ball LK, Ball R, Pratt RD. An assessment of thimerosal use in childhood vaccines. Pediatrics. 2001;107(5):1147–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Barile JP, Kuperminc GP, Weintraub ES, Mink JW, Thompson WW. Thimerosal exposure in early life and neuropsychological outcomes 7–10 years later. J Pediatr Psychol. 2012;37(1):106–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Barregard L, Rekic D, Horvat M, Elmberg L, Lundh T, Zachrisson O. Toxicokinetics of mercury after long-term repeated exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120(2):499–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wattanakrai P, Suwanachote S, Kulkollakarn S, Rajatanavin N. The study of human skin irritation of a novel herbal skin care product and ingredients by human single closed patch testing. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90(6):1116–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Heidary N, Cohen DE. Hypersensitivity reactions to vaccine components. Dermatitis. 2005;16(3):115–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    van ’t Veen AJ, van Joost T. Sensitization to thimerosal (Merthiolate) is still present today. Contact Dermatitis. 1994;31(5):293–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nichol KL, Mendelman PM, Mallon KP, et al. Effectiveness of live, attenuated intranasal influenza virus vaccine in healthy, working adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1999;282(2):137–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Belshe RB, Edwards KM, Vesikari T, et al. Live attenuated versus inactivated influenza vaccine in infants and young children. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(7):685–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Boulianne N, De Serres G, Duval B, Shadmani R, Rochette L. Clinical manifestations and incidence of oculo-respiratory syndrome following influenza vaccination—Quebec, 2000. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2001;27(10):85–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Orr P. Supplementary statement for the 2002–2003 influenza season: update on oculo-respiratory syndrome in association with influenza vaccination. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2002;28(ACS-6):1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    De Serres G, Grenier JL, Toth E, et al. The clinical spectrum of the oculo-respiratory syndrome after influenza vaccination. Vaccine. 2003;21(19–20):2354–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Scheifele DW, Duval B, Russell ML, et al. Ocular and respiratory symptoms attributable to inactivated split influenza vaccine: evidence from a controlled trial involving adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36(7):850–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Dauvilliers Y, Montplaisir J, Cochen V, et al. Post-H1N1 narcolepsy-cataplexy. Sleep. 2010;33(11):1428–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Han F, Lin L, Warby SC, et al. Narcolepsy onset is seasonal and increased following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in China. Ann Neurol. 2011;70(3):410–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Nohynek H, Jokinen J, Partinen M, et al. AS03 adjuvanted A H1N1 vaccine associated with an abrupt increase in the incidence of childhood narcolepsy in Finland. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Partinen M, Saarenpaa-Heikkila O, Ilveskoski I, et al. Increased incidence and clinical picture of childhood narcolepsy following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccination campaign in Finland. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Yen C, Jakob K, Esona MD, et al. Detection of fecal shedding of rotavirus vaccine in infants following their first dose of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. Vaccine. 2011;29(24):4151–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Smith CK, McNeal MM, Meyer NR, Haase S, Dekker CL. Rotavirus shedding in premature infants following first immunization. Vaccine. 2011;29(45):8141–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Vaccines, blood and biologics. Summary basis for regulatory action—Rotarix. Available at:
  116. 116.
    Patel NC, Hertel PM, Estes MK, et al. Vaccine-acquired rotavirus in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(4):314–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Payne DC, Edwards KM, Bowen MD, et al. Sibling transmission of vaccine-derived rotavirus (RotaTeq®) associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. Pediatrics. 2010;125(2):e438–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rivera L, Pena LM, Stainier I, et al. Horizontal transmission of a human rotavirus vaccine strain—a randomized, placebo-controlled study in twins. Vaccine. 2011;29(51):9508–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Cheuvart B, Friedland LR, Abu-Elyazeed R, Han HH, Guerra Y, Verstraeten T. The human rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 in infants: a review of safety and tolerability. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(3):225–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Shui IM, Baggs J, Patel M, et al. Risk of intussusception following administration of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in US infants. JAMA. 2012;307(6):598–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Murphy TV, Gargiullo PM, Massoudi MS, et al. Intussusception among infants given an oral rotavirus vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(8):564–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Studdiford J, Lamb K, Horvath K, Altshuler M, Stonehouse A. Development of unilateral cervical and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy after human papilloma virus vaccination. Pharmacotherapy. 2008;28(9):1194–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    American Academy of Pediatrics, Pickering LK. Red book : 2009 report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rubin RH, Hattwick MA, Jones S, Gregg MB, Schwartz VD. Adverse reactions to duck embryo rabies vaccine. Range and incidence. Ann Intern Med. 1973;78(5):643–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Label LS, Batts DH. Transverse myelitis caused by duck embryo rabies vaccine. Arch Neurol. 1982;39(7):426–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hammitt LL, Bulkow LR, Singleton RJ, et al. Repeat revaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among adults aged 55–74 years living in Alaska: no evidence of hyporesponsiveness. Vaccine. 2011;29(12):2287–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Konradsen HB, Pedersen FK, Henrichsen J. Pneumococcal revaccination of splenectomized children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1990;9(4):258–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Yousef E, Mannan S. Systemic reaction to pneumococcal vaccine: how common in pediatrics? Allergy Asthma Proc. 2008;29(4):397–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Huang DT, Chiu NC, Chi H, Huang FY. Protracted fever with cellulitis-like reaction in pneumococcal polysaccharide-vaccinated children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27(10):937–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Halsey NA, Edwards KM, Dekker CL, et al. Algorithm to assess causality after individual adverse events following immunizations. Vaccine. 2012;30(39):5791–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Collet JP, Cashman N, Pless R. Monitoring signals for vaccine safety: the assessment of individual adverse event reports by an expert advisory committee. Advisory Committee on Causality Assessment. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78(2):178–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Halsey NA. The science of evaluation of adverse events associated with vaccination. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2002;13(3):205–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Black S, Eskola J, Siegrist CA, et al. Importance of background rates of disease in assessment of vaccine safety during mass immunisation with pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccines. Lancet. 2009;374(9707):2115–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Andrews N, Miller E, Waight P, et al. Does oral polio vaccine cause intussusception in infants? Evidence from a sequence of three self-controlled cases series studies in the United Kingdom. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17(8):701–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Farrington CP. Control without separate controls: evaluation of vaccine safety using case-only methods. Vaccine. 2004;22(15–16):2064–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    CDC. Syncope after vaccination—United States, January 2005–July 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57(17):457–60.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Klein NP, Aukes L, Lee J, et al. Evaluation of immunization rates and safety among children with inborn errors of metabolism. Pediatrics. 2011;127(5):e1139–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Morgan TM, Schlegel C, Edwards KM, et al. Vaccines are not associated with metabolic events in children with urea cycle disorders. Pediatrics. 2011;127(5):e1147–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of PediatricsChildren’s Mercy Hospitals and ClinicsKansas CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Missouri at Kansas CityKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations