Development of a Hybrid Microwave-Optical Tissue Oxygenation Probe to Measure Thermal Response in the Deep Tissue
The design of a new non-invasive hybrid microwave-optical tissue oxygenation probe is presented, which consists of a microwave biocompatible antenna and an optical probe. The microwave antenna is capable of inducing localised heat in the deep tissue, causing tissue blood flow and therefore tissue oxygenation to change. These changes or thermal responses are measured by the optical probe using near-infrared spectroscopy. Thermal responses provide important information on thermoregulation in human tissue. The first prototype of the biocompatible antenna was developed and placed on the human calf for in vivo experiments. The measured results include oxy-, deoxy- and total haemoglobin concentration changes (ΔHbO2/ΔHHb/ΔHbT), tissue oxygenation index and the normalised tissue haemoglobin index for two human subjects. Both ΔHbO2 and ΔHbT show an increase during 5 min of microwave exposure. The thermal response, defined as the ratio of the increase in ΔHbT to the time duration, is 7.7 μM/s for subject 1 (fat thickness = 6.8 mm) and 18.9 μM/s for subject 2 (fat thickness = 5.0 mm), which may be influenced by the fat thicknesses. In both subjects, ΔHbO2 and ΔHbT continued to increase for approximately another 70 s after the microwave antenna was switched off.
KeywordsTissue Oxygenation Hybrid Probe Thermal Response Optical Probe Microwave Exposure
This work was partly funded by EPSRC (Grant Code EP/G005036/1). The authors would also like to thank Hamamatsu Photonics KK for loaning the NIRO-100 monitor.