Development of a Hybrid Microwave-Optical Tissue Oxygenation Probe to Measure Thermal Response in the Deep Tissue

  • Allann Al-Armaghany
  • Kenneth Tong
  • Terence S. Leung
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 789)


The design of a new non-invasive hybrid microwave-optical tissue oxygenation probe is presented, which consists of a microwave biocompatible antenna and an optical probe. The microwave antenna is capable of inducing localised heat in the deep tissue, causing tissue blood flow and therefore tissue oxygenation to change. These changes or thermal responses are measured by the optical probe using near-infrared spectroscopy. Thermal responses provide important information on thermoregulation in human tissue. The first prototype of the biocompatible antenna was developed and placed on the human calf for in vivo experiments. The measured results include oxy-, deoxy- and total haemoglobin concentration changes (ΔHbO2/ΔHHb/ΔHbT), tissue oxygenation index and the normalised tissue haemoglobin index for two human subjects. Both ΔHbO2 and ΔHbT show an increase during 5 min of microwave exposure. The thermal response, defined as the ratio of the increase in ΔHbT to the time duration, is 7.7 μM/s for subject 1 (fat thickness = 6.8 mm) and 18.9 μM/s for subject 2 (fat thickness = 5.0 mm), which may be influenced by the fat thicknesses. In both subjects, ΔHbO2 and ΔHbT continued to increase for approximately another 70 s after the microwave antenna was switched off.


Tissue Oxygenation Hybrid Probe Thermal Response Optical Probe Microwave Exposure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was partly funded by EPSRC (Grant Code EP/G005036/1). The authors would also like to thank Hamamatsu Photonics KK for loaning the NIRO-100 monitor.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allann Al-Armaghany
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kenneth Tong
    • 1
  • Terence S. Leung
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Electronic and Electrical EngineeringUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.LondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Medical Physics and BioengineeringUniversity College LondonLondonUK

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