Interleukin 11 Protects Bone Marrow Mitochondria from Radiation Damage
Interleukin 11 (IL-11) is a multifunctional cytokine isolated from bone marrow (BM)-derived stromal cells that promotes hematopoiesis and prolongs the life span of lethally irradiated animals. However, the underlying mechanism for the protective effect of IL-11 on BM is unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of IL-11 on irradiated BM cells. Freshly harvested BM cells were pretreated with 20 ng/ml of recombinant IL-11 for 30 min, irradiated with a dose of 0.5 Gy, cultured for 24 h, and then subjected to several assays. In vitro data showed that, as compared to the vehicle controls, IL-11: (1) reduced the production of reactive oxygen species; (2) reduced the alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential; (3) increased MitoTracker staining, suggesting that the number of mitochondria and their functions were better maintained; and (4) reduced apoptosis of BM cells and enhanced BM cell proliferation. In vivo studies of mice pretreated with saline or 100 μg/kg of IL-11 at 12 and 2 h before 10-Gy total body irradiation (TBI) demonstrated that G-CSF and IL-6 were significantly upregulated, whereas IL-2 and IL-4 were reduced. We found that IL-11 protects mitochondrial functions, acts with G-CSF and IL-6 to stimulate the growth of radiation-damaged BM, and reduces the immune response to radiation injury.
This project is supported in part by RC1AI0710519, RC2-AI-01075100, RC1-AI0101274 (NIAID/NIH), and Shands Cancer Center startup funds (University of Florida). We thank Dr. Chihray Liu and the medical physics faculty at UF for ensuring dosimetric accuracy in these experiments and Kate Casey-Sawicki for editing this manuscript.
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