Sea Breeze and Diurnal Change Over the Tropics
The sea breeze phenomenon is very striking over many parts of the tropics since it is known to produce cooling associated with afternoon showers that occur with regularity on most undisturbed days. Figure 18.1 from a classical diagram of van Bemmelen (1922) illustrates the time evolution of the sea breeze (on shore winds) in Batavia (now Jakarta). The Batavia sea breeze time section shows that it is a shallow circulation essentially confined to the lowest 3 km. The intensity of the upper land breeze is roughly half that of the sea breeze. The land breeze (off shore winds) during the early morning is much less intense by comparison. Extensive observational studies of sea breezes have been conducted by Hsu (1970), Flohn (1965) and many others. Hsu (1970) portrayed a schematic evolution of the land/sea breeze phenomenon based on observations in the Gulf Coast of Texas. Figure 18.2 illustrates this evolution, the diagram being self explanatory. Here the horizontal and vertical extent of the wind system is enclosed within a heavy solid elliptical curve.
KeywordsDiurnal Change Offshore Wind Geostrophic Wind Eastern Tibetan Plateau Land Breeze
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