Sea Breeze and Diurnal Change Over the Tropics

  • T. N. Krishnamurti
  • Lydia Stefanova
  • Vasubandhu Misra
Part of the Springer Atmospheric Sciences book series (SPRINGERATMO)


The sea breeze phenomenon is very striking over many parts of the tropics since it is known to produce cooling associated with afternoon showers that occur with regularity on most undisturbed days. Figure 18.1 from a classical diagram of van Bemmelen (1922) illustrates the time evolution of the sea breeze (on shore winds) in Batavia (now Jakarta). The Batavia sea breeze time section shows that it is a shallow circulation essentially confined to the lowest 3 km. The intensity of the upper land breeze is roughly half that of the sea breeze. The land breeze (off shore winds) during the early morning is much less intense by comparison. Extensive observational studies of sea breezes have been conducted by Hsu (1970), Flohn (1965) and many others. Hsu (1970) portrayed a schematic evolution of the land/sea breeze phenomenon based on observations in the Gulf Coast of Texas. Figure 18.2 illustrates this evolution, the diagram being self explanatory. Here the horizontal and vertical extent of the wind system is enclosed within a heavy solid elliptical curve.


Diurnal Change Offshore Wind Geostrophic Wind Eastern Tibetan Plateau Land Breeze 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ananthakrishnan, R.: Some aspects of the monsoon circulation and monsoon rainfall. Pure Appl. Geophys. 115, 1209–49 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arrit, R.W.: Effects of the large-scale flow on characteristic features of the sea breeze. J. Appl. Meteor. 32, 116–25 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Van Bemmelen, W.: Land-und Seebrise in Batavia. Beitr. Phys. Frei. Atmos. 10, 169–77 (1922)Google Scholar
  4. Chapman, S., Lindzen, R.S.: Atmospheric Tides. D. Reidel, Dordrecht (1970). 200ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Estoque, M.A.: A theoretical investigation of the sea-breeze. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 87, 136–46 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Flohn, H.: Klimaprobleme am Roten Meet. Erdkunde 19, 179–91 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gray, W.M., Jacobson Jr., R.W.: Diurnal variation of deep cumulus convection. Mon. Weather Rev. 105, 1171–88 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hamilton, K.: The geographical distribution of the solar semidiurnal surface pressure oscillation. J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1945–9 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Haurwitz, B., Cowley, A.D.: The diurnal and semidiurnal barometric pressure oscillations: global distribution and annual variation. Pure Appl. Geophys. 102, 193–222 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hsu, S.–.A.: Coastal air-circulation system: observations and empirical model. Mon. Weather Rev. 98, 487–509 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Krishnamurti, T.N., Kishtawal, C.M.: A pronounced continental-scale diurnal mode of the Asian summer monsoon. Mon. Weather Rev. 128, 462–73 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Krishnamurti, T.N., Gnanaseelan, C., Chakraborty, A.: Prediction of the diurnal change using a multimodel superensemble. Part I: precipitation. Mon. Weather Rev. 135, 3613–32 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Krishnamurti, T.N., Gnanaseelan, C., Mishra, A.K., Chakraborty, A.: Improved forecasts of the diurnal cycle in the tropics using multiple global models part I: precipitation. J. Climate 21, 4029–43 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lavoie, R.L.: Some aspects of the meteorology of the tropical Pacific viewed from an atoll. Atoll. Res. Bull. No. 96, Honolulu (1963)Google Scholar
  15. Lindzen, R.S.: Thermally driven diurnal tide in the atmosphere. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 93, 18–42 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McGarry, M.M., Reed, R.J.: Diurnal variation in convective activity and precipitation during phases II and III of GATE. Mon. Weather Rev. 106, 101–13 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mellor, G.L., Yamada, T.: Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid processes. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 851–75 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Murakami, M.: Large-scale aspects of deep convective activity over the GATE area. Mon. Weather Rev. 107, 994–1013 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pielke, R.A.: A three-dimensional numerical model of the sea breeze over South Florida. Mon. Weather Rev. 102, 115–39 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. N. Krishnamurti
    • 1
  • Lydia Stefanova
    • 2
  • Vasubandhu Misra
    • 2
  1. 1.Florida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.Center for Ocean-Atmospheric PredictionFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations