Evolution of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Brief Review

  • Bernd J. Krämer
Conference paper


The term “cyber-physical system” (CPS) sounds like a brand-new buzzword as it occurs increasingly as a theme of many conferences, in journal articles and books—like this one. Etymologically the prefix cyber derives from the ancient Greek word κυβέρνησις (kybernesis) and originally means control skills. It evolved into the Latin word guvernare and finally the English word to govern. For our context this means that we speak about systems in which physical objects and computational resources are tightly integrated and exhibit a degree of continuous coordination between each other.


Ambient Assisted Living German Industry Control Skill Integrate System Modeling Complex Organizational Structure 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Scientific Academy for Service TechnologyHagenGermany

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