Advertisement

Ontogeny of Herbivory on Leaves in a Tropical Rain Forest in Madagascar

  • Harold Heatwole
  • Sybille Unsicker
  • Margaret Lowman
Chapter

Abstract

Leaves undergo ontogenetic changes in their toughness, chemical composition, and texture, all of which affect their palatability to herbivores and pathogens and their resistance to physical agents (Lowman and Box 1983; Lowman 1995; Coley and Kursar 1996; Coley et al. 2006). Consequently, rates of herbivory and other damage would be expected to change during the life of the leaf, and hence, there may be temporal as well as spatial dimensions to the vicissitudes of leaves. The present study was carried out to ascertain the changes in vulnerability of leaves to damage by various agents as the leaves undergo ontogeny.

Keywords

Canopy Epiphyllae Galls Herbivory Madagascar • Ontogeny 

Notes

Acknowledgments 

We thank Pro-Natura International and Operation Canopée for financial and logistic support; Judith Thomas for use of the leaf meter; Francis Hallé for sharing his expertise; the dirigible pilots, Dany Cleyet-Marrel and Jean Drouault, for their expert flying; Giles Ebersolt, Thierry Aubert, and François Idiené, for technical support and teaching us to fly the helium balloon; the late Audry Heatwole and the late Shirley Waters for laboratory assistance; and Susan King for critical comment on the manuscript.

References

  1. Coley PD, Aide TM (1989) Red coloration of tropical young leaves: a possible antifungal defense? J Trop Ecol 5:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Coley PD, Kursar T (1996) Anti-herbivore defenses of young tropical leaves: physiological constraints and ecological trade-offs. In: Mulkey SS, Chazdon LR, Smith AP (eds) Tropical forest plant physiology. Chapman & Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Coley PD, Bateman ML, Kursar TA (2006) The effects of plant quality on caterpillar growth and defense against natural enemies. Oikos 115:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hallé EF (2002) The canopy raft. In: Mitchell AW, Secoy K, Jackson T (eds) The global canopy handbook, techniques of access and study in the forest roof. Global Canopy Programme, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Hallé EF, Cleyet-Marrel D, Ebersolt G (2000) Le Radeau des Cimes, exploration des canopées forestières. Editions Jean-Claude Lattès, ParisGoogle Scholar
  6. Haukioja E, Neuvonen S (1985) Induced long-term resistance of birch foliage against defoliators: defensive or incidental? Ecology 66:1303–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haukioja E, Niemelä P (1979) Birch leaves as a resource for herbivores: Seasonal occurrence of increased resistance in foliage after mechanical damage of adjacent leaves. Oecologia 39:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heatwole H, Unsicker S, Andriamiarisoa LR, Lowman MD (2009) Vicissitudes of leaves in a tropical rain forest in Madagascar. J Trop Ecol 25:615–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kremen C, Razafimahatratra V, Guillery RP, Rakotomalala J, Weiss A, Ratsisompatrarivo JS (1999) Designing the Masoala National Park in Madagascar based on biological and socioeconomic data. Conserv Biol 13:1055–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lowman MD (1985) Temporal and spatial variability in insect grazing of the canopies of five Australian rain forest tree species. Aust J Ecol 10:7–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lowman MD (1987) Relationships between leaf growth and holes caused by herbivores. Aust J Ecol 12:189–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lowman MD (1995) Herbivory as a canopy process in rain forest trees. In: Lowman MD, Nadkarni N (eds) Forest canopies. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  13. Lowman MD, Box JD (1983) Variation in leaf toughness and phenolic content among five species of Australian rain forest trees. Aust J Ecol 8:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lowman MD, Heatwole H (1987) The impact of defoliating insects on the growth of eucalypt saplings. Aust J Ecol 12:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lowman MD, Heatwole H (1992) Spatial and temporal variability in defoliation of Australian eucalypts. Ecology 73:129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mitchell AW, Secoy K, Jackson T (2002) Global canopy handbook, techniques of access and study in the forest roof. Global Canopy Programme, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. Monte-Alegre A, Rakotomalala Z, Levedgle M, Coulier F, Faure E (2005) Ecological, vertical and elevational distributions of Heteropsis (Lepidoptera, Satyrinae) in the rainforest of Masoala (NE Madagascar). J Zool Syst Evol Res 43:214–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Montgomery N (1977) Single rope techniques, a guide for vertical cavers. Sydney Speleogical Society Occasional Papers no. 7, p. 1–122Google Scholar
  19. Selman BJ, Lowman MD (1983) The biology and herbivory rates of Novacastria nothofagi Selman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new genus and species on Nothofagus moorei in Australian temperate rain forests. Aust J Zool 31:179–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harold Heatwole
    • 1
  • Sybille Unsicker
    • 2
  • Margaret Lowman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Institute of EcologyUniversity of JenaJenaGermany
  3. 3.North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, North Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations