Systems and Subsystems, Multiple Particles
Up to this point, we have considered the state of a quantum system to be described by a unit vector in the corresponding Hilbert space, or more properly, an equivalence class of unit vectors under the equivalence relation \(\psi\) ∼ e i θ \(\psi\). We will see in this section that this notion of the state of a quantum system is too limited. We will introduce a more general notion of the state of a system, described by a density matrix. The special case in which the system can be described by a unit vector will be called a pure state.
KeywordsDensity Matrix Pure State Density Matrice Identical Particle Trace Class
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