Advertisement

Iron-Fortified and Unfortified Nigerian Foods

  • Osaretin Albert Taiwo EbuehiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

Nigeria is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse countries. The Hausa and Yoruba make up around 21 % of the population; the Igbo/Ibo, 18 %; the Fulani, around 11 %; and Ibibio, 5 %. Various other ethnic groups, such as the Bini or Edo, Urhobo, Efik, Isoko, Ishan, Kwale, etc., make up the remaining 23 %. Nigeria has such a variety of people and cultures that it is difficult to pick one national dish. Each area has its own regional favorite that depends on customs, tradition, and religion. The different foods available also depend on the season: the “hungry season” is before the rains arrive in March, and the “season of surplus” follows the harvest in October and November [1, 2] (Fig. 33.1).

Keywords

Food fortification Iron-fortified foods Iron-unfortified foods Nigeria Prospects Challenges 

Abbreviations

WHO

World health organization

GAIN

Global alliance for improved nutrition

UNESCO

United Nations educational scientific cultural organization

MI

Micronutrient initiative

UNI

United Nations initiative

NAFDAC

National agency of food, drug, administration and control

CDC

Center for disease control

USAID

United States agency for international development

MOST

Museum of science and technology

SON

Standards organization of Nigeria

NIFST

Nigerian institute of food science and technology

NSN

Nutrition society of Nigeria

CHD

Coronary heart disease

UAC

United African company

WAMCO

West African milk company

RBC

Red blood cells

RDA

Recommended dietary allowance

PUFA

Poly unsaturated fatty acid

NDHS

National demographic health scheme

NaFe EDTA

Sodium iron (II) ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid

UNICEF

United Nations international children educational fund

References

  1. 1.
    Burgi H, Supersaxo Z, Selz B. Iodine deficiency diseases in Switzerland one hundred years after Theodor Kocher’s survey: a historical review with some new goiter prevalence data. Acta Endocrinol. 1990;123:577–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Agency of Food, Drug, Administration and Control (NAFDAC). www.nafdac.org. Accessed 27 March 2012.
  3. 3.
    Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Recommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency in the United States. MMWR. 1998;47:1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Milman N. Serum ferritin in Danes: studies of iron status from infancy to old age, during blood donation and pregnancy. Int J Hematol. 1996;63(2):103–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hallberg L, Hulthen L, Garby I. Iron stores in man in relation to diet and iron requirements. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52:623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    World Health Organization. Iron deficiency anaemia: assessment, prevention, and control. A guide for programme managers. Geneva: WHO/NHD; 2008.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ebuehi OAT, Oyewole AC. Effect of cooking and soaking on the nutritive composition and sensory evaluation of indigenous and foreign rice varieties in Nigeria. Nutr Food Sci. 2007;38:15–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Juliano BO. Rice in human nutrition. Philippines: International Rice Research Institute; 1993. p. 61–5.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ebuehi OAT, Oduwole MO. Physical and sensory attributes of iron fortified and unfortified Nigerian and Foreign rice varieties. J Food Agric Environ. 2010;8:163–7.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ebuehi OAT, Oyewole AC. Biochemical studies of iron fortified Nigerian rice fed to phenylhydrazine induced anaemic rats. Am J Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;1(2):168–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nestel P, Nalubola R. Manual for wheat flour fortification with iron. Part 1: Guidelines for the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of a program for wheat flour fortification with iron. Arlington: MOST/USAID; 2000.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nestel P, Nalubola, R. Manual for wheat flour fortification with iron Part 2: Technical and operational guidelines. Arlington: MOST/USAID; 2000.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nestel P, Bouic HE, Meenakshi JV, Pfeiffer N. Biofortification of staple food crops. J Nutr. 2006;136:1064–967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition. Nigeria wheat flour, maize meal, vegetable oil and sugar fortification project. Geneva: GAIN; 2011.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Davidson L. Approaches to improve iron bioavailability from complementary foods. J Nutr. 2003;133:1560S–2S.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haas JD, Brownlie T. Iron deficiency and reduced work capacity: a critical review of the research to determine a causal relationship. J Nutr. 2001;131:691S–6S.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ebuehi OAT, Akande GA. Effect of zinc deficiency on memory, oxidative stress and blood chemistry in rats. Int J Biol Chem Sci. 2009;3:513–23.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    UNICEF/UNI/MI. Preventing iron deficiency in women and children: Background and Consensus on key technical issues and resources for advocacy, Planning and implementing National programs, New York: UNICEF International Nutrition Foundation; 1999.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nilson A, Piza J. Food fortification, a tool for fighting hidden hunger. Food Nutr Bull. 1998;19:49–60.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cook JD, Reusser ME. Iron fortification: an update. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984;38:648–59.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zoller JM, Wolinsky J, Paden CA, et al. Fortification of non-staple food items with iron. Food Tech. 1980;34:38–47.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Narasinga Rao BS, Vijayasarathy C. Fortification of common salt with iron: effect of chemical additives on stability and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr. 1975;28(12):1395–401.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hurrell RF. How to ensure adequate iron absorption from iron-fortified food. Nutr Rev. 2002;60(7 Pt 2):S7–S15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moretti D et al. Development and evaluation of iron-fortified extruded rice grains. J Food Sci. 2005;70:S330–S6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ebuehi OAT, Mbara KC. Biochemical studies of iron-fortified gari fed to phenylhydrazine-induced anaemic rats. Am J Food Technol. 2011;6(6):472–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ballot DE et al. Fortification of curry powder with NaFe(111)EDTA in an iron deficient population: report of a controlled iron-fortification trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:162–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang CF, King RL. Chemical and sensory evaluation of iron-fortified milk. J Food Sci. 1973;38:938–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mannar V, Boy N, Gallego E. Iron fortification: country level experiences and lessons learned. J Nutr. 2002;132(4 Suppl):856S–8S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cook JD, Reddy MB, Burri J, Juillerat MA, Hurrell RF. The influence of different cereal grains on iron absorption from infant cereal foods. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:964–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thuy PV et al. Regular consumption of NaFeEDTA-fortified fish sauce improves iron status and reduces the prevalence of anemia in anemic Vietnamese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:284–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    EBUEHI, O.A.T. “Nutrients and Neurotransmitters: The chemicals of life in the brain”. 10th Inaugural Lecture series, delivered at Main Auditorium, Univ. of Lagos, University of Lagos Press, Lagos, Nigeria, 2012;21:pp. 96Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryCollege of Medicine, University of LagosLagosNigeria

Personalised recommendations