Micronutrient Fortification of School Lunch Meals in Himalayan Villages

  • Akoto K. OseiEmail author
  • Irwin H. Rosenberg
  • Robert F. Houser
  • Minnie Mathews
  • Davidson H. Hamer
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)


Micronutrient deficiencies affect millions of schoolchildren in developing countries [1]. Anemia is by far the most widely prevalent and affects about 46 % of schoolchildren in low income countries, with the highest prevalence in South Asia (50 %) [1, 2]. Vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol < 0.7 μmol/L) also affects 23 % of South Asian schoolchildren [3]. Children with micronutrient deficiencies may experience retarded growth [4], reduced immune function [5], impaired motor and cognitive development [6], and poor school attendance, academic performance, and achievement [7].


Micronutrient powder Home fortification Effectiveness Schoolchildren India Anemia Iron Vitamin A Zinc Folate Vitamin B12 



Confidence interval


Interquartile range


Odds ratio


Recommended dietary allowance


Recommended nutrient intake


Standard deviation


Standard error of the mean


Total body iron


Tolerable upper intake level



We are grateful to Dr. Saraswati Bulusu, Tripti Pantajoshti, Anil Bhutani, and Dr. Rajesh Singh, for assistance with implementation of the intervention and data collection; and to Dr. Ujwala Godbole for laboratory analysis. We appreciate the inputs of Dr. Nevin Scrimshaw and Dr. Gary Gleason for their comments in improving the quality of this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akoto K. Osei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Irwin H. Rosenberg
    • 2
  • Robert F. Houser
    • 2
  • Minnie Mathews
    • 3
  • Davidson H. Hamer
    • 4
  1. 1.Helen Keller International, Asia Pacific Regional OfficePhnom PenhCambodia
  2. 2.Friedman School of Nutrition Science and PolicyTufts UniversityBostonUSA
  3. 3.Bharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  4. 4.Center for Global Health and Development and Department of International HealthBoston University School of Public Health, Crosstown Center, Boston University Medical CampusBostonUSA

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