Use of Fortified Foods for Indonesian Infants

  • Umi FahmidaEmail author
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)


Adequate nutrition during the first 2 year of life is important to ensure optimal physical and mental development. Malnutrition, which prevents infants/young children from growing to their full genetic potential, remains problematic in developing countries including the Southeast Asian countries. It occurs primarily during the first 2 year of life [1, 2] making it essential to provide a nutritionally adequate complementary diet. During the complementary feeding period, breast milk provides less than 50 % of an infant’s high nutrient needs for iron, zinc, calcium, thiamin, and riboflavin [3]. Given the limited gastric capacity of infants to consume foods, consequently, complementary foods (CF) with a high nutrient density should be provided (WHO, 1998). Animal source foods have been cited in particular as essential to achieve micronutrient requirements [4]. However in developing countries where significant numbers of households still live below poverty level such as in Indonesia, promoting intakes of animal source foods will not be an easy task. Fortification of food vehicles which are consumed predominantly by lower-socioeconomic population can contribute to increase micronutrient intakes.


Indonesia Infant Fortified foods Nutrient-dense foods Iron Zinc Calcium Fatty acids Linear/goal programming 



Complementary foods


Complementary feeding recommendations


Essential fatty acids


Fortified foods


Linoleic acids (18:2(n-6), an omega-6 fatty acid)


α-linolenic acid (18:3(n-3), an omega-3 fatty acid)


Linear/goal programming


Nutrient-dense foods


Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Retinol equivalent


Standar Nasional Indonesia (The Indonesian National Standard)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SEAMEO—RECFON (Southeast Asian Minister of Education Organization Regional Center for Food and Nutrition)University of IndonesiaJakartaIndonesia

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